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Psy 321 - Chpt 9 Notes

by: Jasmine Notetaker

Psy 321 - Chpt 9 Notes Psy 321

Jasmine Notetaker

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About this Document

Covers relevant material in chapter 9 as well as material dicussed in lectures 10/6/16 & 10/11/16
Social Psychology
Marilyn Mendolia
Class Notes
social, Psychology
25 ?




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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jasmine Notetaker on Sunday October 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psy 321 at University of Mississippi taught by Marilyn Mendolia in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Mississippi.

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Date Created: 10/16/16
Psy 321 Notes Chpt. 9 Lectures Covered (10/6/16 & 10/11/16) Prosocial Behavior & Helping Vocab  Prosocial Behavior – doing something that is good for others or for society as a whole  Gratitude - a positive emotion that results from the perception that one has benefited from the costly, intentional, voluntary action of another person  Social Norms – define the rules of helping others o Fairness  Equity – each person receives benefits in proportion with what he or she has contributed  Equality – everyone gets the same amount o Reciprocity – I help you, you help me o Social Responsibility – help those who depend on us o Social justice – we help only when others deserve our assistance  Conformity – going along with the crowd Who Helps Whom?  Belief in a just world – belief that the world is a just place where people get what they deserve and deserve what they get o This belief leads people to blame the victim o People who belief in a just world only help those they think deserves help o Both positive and negative feelings can promote helping Two Motives For Helping:  Egoistic helping: helper wants something in return for offering help o Helper’s goal is to increase his/ her own welfare o Motivated by personal distress  Altruistic helping: helper expects nothing in return for helping o Helper’s goal is to increase the welfare of another o Motivated by empathy  Egoistic Vs. Altruistic Motives o Low empathy - people reduce their own distress either by helping the person in need or by escaping the situation so they don’t have to see the person suffer any longer o High empathy - simply shutting your eyes or leaving the situation won’t work because the other person is still suffering; only solution is to help the victim feel better  Empathy-altruism hypothesis - the idea that empathy motivates people to reduce other people’s distress, as by helping or comforting o Empathy-altruism theory according to Batson – people are more motivated to help when they feel for a victim rather than just seeing distress o Batson & Duncan Study: (figure 9.4)  Participants told by researchers that they are studying the effects of stress on task performance  They watch a confederate named Elaine receive electrical shocks while performing 10 trials of a task  High empathy condition: To increase empathy, some of the participants were told that Elaine had similar values to their own; low empathy condition – some of the participants told Elaine’s values were different from their own  To test for egoistic motives – the was an easy-escape condition (where participants could leave after watching Elaine get shocked on first two trials) and a difficult-escape condition (participants told they would have to watch all 10 trials)  After Elaine suffered through two trials, the participant was asked if willing to trade places with Elaine  Participants in high-empathy group traded places with Elaine regardless of whether it was easy or difficult to escape  In the low-empathy group, participants did not offer to take Elaine’s place if it was easy for them to escape the unpleasant task of watching Elaine suffer. If it was difficult to escape more than half traded places with Elaine  Conclusion: low-empathy ppl only help to make themselves feel good and would walk away and ignore the victims suffering if they could. High- empathy ppl helped regardless of whether they were allowed to escape o Batson “Miletana” Study  Uses misattribution  Subjects are given a vitamin pill that will either cause:  “Feeling of uneasiness and discomfort “  “Feelings of warmth and sensitivity”  The pill was really a placebo with no effect  Asked female students to take the place of Elaine who was receiving mild electrical shocks  Participants who were told that the drug caused the empathetic concern offered to take the shocks & those who had been told they would feel distress were more likely to leave  Empathetic observers were willing to help regardless of escape condition, whereas personally distressed observers were willing to help only when escape was difficult Young children are intrinsically motivated to see others helped  Warneken & Tomasello Altruism o Study of altruism in 18 month olds o Child offers helping behavior when adult accidentally drops items on the floor o Clothespin Task:  Experimenter is hanging towels on a line using clothespin that he accidentally drops  Child picked up clothespin and handed it to experimenter o Cabinet Task:  Experimenter tries to put stack of magazines in a cabinet but can’t open the door while holding the magazines. Child opens cabinet door o These experiments show that children display unrewarded helping behaviors when they see someone who cannot achieve their goal Bystander Helping in Emergencies  Bystander Effect - the finding that people are less likely to offer help when they are in a group than when they are alone  Kitty Genovese – woman attacked outside of her apartment in Queens, New York while several neighbors witnessed o Illustrated bystander effect  Five Steps to Helping & Obstacles @ each Step: o Darley & Latané Model  Obstacle– Distracted or too self concerned to notice something happening  Step 1 – Notice that something is happening  Obstacles - Ambiguity; Unclear relationship b/w victim & attacker; pluralistic ignorance (looking to others for cues about how to behave, while they are looking to you;  Step 2 – Interpret even as an emergency  Obstacle - Diffusion of Responsibility: the reduction in feeling responsible that occurs while others are present  Step 3 – Take Responsibility for Providing Help  Obstacle – lack of competence  Step 4 – Decide How to Help  Audience inhibition (failure to help in front of others for fear of feeling like a fool if one’s offer of help is rejected); cost exceeds rewards  Step 5 – Provide Help Good Samaritan Study (Darley & Batson)  Had seminary students either prepare a speech to another group of students on the parable of the good Samaritan or have the group talk about jobs that seminary students like best  After prepare speech they have to walk to nearby building to give speech  Some told they had plenty of time, some told they would be right on time and then a third group told they should hurry or might be late  On the way they pass confederate in distress  Dependent variable – degree of helping that each student gave on a 5 pt. scale of helping, ranging from “failed to notice the victim at all” to “after stopping, refused to leave the victim or take him to help  Speech they prepared didn’t make a difference but what did influence helping was time pressure  Study showed that the amount of time they had to get to the next building is what determined whether they stopped to help or not. It had nothing to do with what they were speaking about Pluralistic Ignorance Study  Had subjects fill out questionnaires in a room that began to fill with smoke.  In one condition the subject was alone. In another condition three subjects were in the room. In the third condition one subject and two confederates were in the room (confederates just ignored the smoke)  75% of alone subjects left the room to report the smoke, only 10% of subjects with confederates with them reported the smoke  When the its three subjects in the room with no confederates only 38% report the smoke  Pluralistic ignorance: we use other people to evaluate what we should do. Emergencies are ambiguous so we look to other people and other people look to us Diffusion of Responsibility: Epileptic Seizure Study  Students in introductory psychology class at New York University were asked to have anonymous discussion with other students about their personal and academic issues  Subject sat in cubicle amongst many other cubicles in which there were tapes of other students playing and the subject thought they were real people  During discussion subject overhears another student having and epileptic seizure  In the case were participants were told there were only 2 subjects in the study, 85% responded but in the case were participants were told there were 6 subjects, only 31% of participants responded  Study demonstrates diffusion of responsibility because when other people think that another person will intervene, they feel less responsible Why Do People Help?  Arousal-Cost Reward Model (Piliavin) o People feel upset when they see a person in need and are motivated to do something to reduce the unpleasant arousal. People then weigh the costs and rewards of helping versus not helping o Arousal is motivation o Study: Physical Distraction on Following Verbal instructions  Whether physical distraction gets in the way of you being able to follow instructions  Have subjects do pushups to introduce arousal state  Low, moderate, and high exercise group is the arousal manipulation  Next subjects here over intercom glass break, the crash of a ladder, and then someone say “oh my head”  More aroused subject is from doing exercise, the more likely they are to help in the emergency  Rat Empathy – Empathy and pro social behavior in rats o To test for empathy and pro social behavior in rats o Place a free rat in an arena with a another rat who is trapped in a cylinder-shaped restrainer o Free rat eventually learns to open the restrainer and free the cage mate o The rat does not open the restrainer if it was empty or if a toy rat was in the restrainer o Even when the rats could not have social contact, the free rat still open the restrainer for his trapped friend o When cylinder contained trapped rat and cylinder containing chocolate were placed in the cage, the free rat opened both and shared the chocolate with the rat who was trapped o Conclusion: rats display pro social behavior. This provides strong evidence that empathetically motivated behaviors have biological origin  Empathetic-joy hypothesis (Smith et al.) o We help another because empathy leads to shared feelings of joy o Person observes victim suffering  person feels for the victim (empathy)  person helps for a positive resolution o This is not altruistic because the helping is motivated by positive resolution instead of nothing in return  Empathetic-specific reward hypothesis – people learn through reinforcement and that there are rewards for helping that have been taught to us  Negative State Relief Model – Cialdini (opposes Batson’s Theory) o We help and display altruism only to get rid of our own negative state of distress brought on by empathizing with the victim o Study:  College female comes in to play the role of confederate – they receive electric shocks while the participants watch  Empathy manipulated by having the person take the victims perspective or not (think about what their experiencing doing the learning trial or not or objectively watch them as they are going threw it)  Can change places with her while she is being shocked  Difference is there is a award manipulation introduced to relieve negative feelings (subjects un- expectantly given money after watching Elaine get the shocks)  Reward makes a difference – helping reduced to a level of the low empathy people


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