GEOL 101 Week 4 Class Lecture Notes
GEOL 101 Week 4 Class Lecture Notes GEOL 101
Western Washington University
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sarah Vernier-Dolin on Sunday October 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEOL 101 at Western Washington University taught by Paul A. Thomas in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Geology in Geology at Western Washington University.
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Date Created: 10/16/16
GEOL 101 – Lecture Notes Week 4 10/10 – 10/14 Types of Sedimentary Rocks § Clastic/detrital o Conglomerate § Chemical o Limestone Common Clastic Sedimentary Rocks § Conglomerate § Breccia § Sandstone § Shale Clastic Sedimentary Rocks – Coarse Grained § Conglomerate § Breccia Sandstone – Medium Grained § Quartz Sandstone § Akrose Sandstone § Graywacke Sandstone Chemical Sedimentary Rocks § Gypsum § Limestone § Dolostone § Chert Limestone § Composition – CaCO3 § Fizzes in HCI § Commonly fossiliferious Chert § Composition – microcrystalline quartz – SiO2 § Conchoidal fractures Sedimentary Rocks & Rock Cycle 5 step process to making sedimentary rocks 1. Weathering – physical & chemicals weathering break down of rocks 2. Transportation – moves eroded products t0 a new location 3. Deposition – particles settle as transportation energy decreases 4. Burial – accumulation of sediment buries older material 5. Lithification – sediments turn into solid rock Weathering & Erosion § Break down rocks/minerals at or near Earth’s surface § Physical weathering (PW) – solid rock is mechanically broken down into smaller pieces o Creates certain fracture patters in a rock o Climate determines what the weathering agents are § Weathering is most intense in the mountains o Frost & mineral wedging o Roots & other biologic activity o It continues to happen during transportation § Chemical weathering (CW) – minerals in a rock are chemically altered or dissolved often to form a byproduct (usually involving water) o Byproducts of CW: dissolved ions, created new stable minerals from old ones (ex. rust), formation of clay minerals (also stable, they don’t break down any further) o Processes: dissolution (ex. limestone), hydrolysis (forming new stable ions from less stable ones), oxidation Physical & Chemical § One type of weathering will promote the other breaking the r ock down faster o PW promotes CW by increasing the surface area o CW promotes PW by making it less stable § Quartz is the most resistant to PW & CW à which is most likely why it’s the most common mineral found in sedimentary rocks § Mafic minerals – least resistant to weathering § Felsic minerals – most resistant to weathering