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Week 8 notes - Chapter 19 and 20 Heart Anatomy and Physiology

by: Kimberly Krause

Week 8 notes - Chapter 19 and 20 Heart Anatomy and Physiology 2402

Marketplace > Tyler Junior College > Biology > 2402 > Week 8 notes Chapter 19 and 20 Heart Anatomy and Physiology
Kimberly Krause
Tyler Junior College
GPA 4.0

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MWF of Week 8 notes include: Heart, Conduction System, Valves, Cardiac Output, Stroke Volume, Systemic and Pulmonary Circulation, Different types of vessels, Pumps
Anatomy and Physiology II
Dr. Cates
Class Notes
Heart, Conduction System, valves, Cardiac Output, Stroke Volume, Systemic and Pulmonary Circulation, Different types of vessels, pumps, blood vessels, arteries, veins, capillaries
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kimberly Krause on Sunday October 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 2402 at Tyler Junior College taught by Dr. Cates in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Anatomy and Physiology II in Biology at Tyler Junior College.


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Date Created: 10/16/16
A and P 2 - Mr. Cates 10/10/16 Chapter 19 - Heart, Conduction System, Valves Valves 1. Pulmonary Semilunar Valve P. C.medical- 2. Aortic Semilunar Valve Both of these have 3 “cusps” 3. Tricuspid valve 3 “cusps” 4. Bicuspid valve 2 “cusps” -The little strings that hold down the valves are called chordae tendineae. -The humps that the strings attach to at the wall are papillary muscles. When do valves open and close? When the pressure changes. There are NO muscles that make them open and close. (That’s why CPR works) The valves can only flow one way. One way to illustrate when the valves are open and closed A is the Atrium, V is the Ventricles, and A is the Artery. > symbolizes the one way valve. A > v - If the blood is in the atrium and it goes DOWN the tricuspid into the ventricle, the valves is open. a > V -If the blood has just fallen down into the ventricle then the valve is CLOSED. v > A -If the blood has just gone into the artery then the blood can’t flow back, so the valve is closed. Conduction System -Is Intrinsic means inside the heart Ex. Conductor an orchestra keeping everyone in line. -The SA node depolarizes at 100 per minute, but the normal beats per minute is 75. Why is there a difference? It’s called Vagal tone. The vagus nerve (Parasympathetic) don’t want to waste energy, so it slows down the SA node’s beat. 1. SA node starts the electrical system. Signal gets to atrium at same time so atria contracts at the same time. 2. Then the signal travels to the AV node. The fibrous skeleton that’s in the core of the heart acts as an insulator, so the impulse only travels through the AV node and not through the other heart muscles. 3. Then runs down the bundle of His. 4. Then right and left bundle branches, which split into the purkinje fibers. 5. Then the impulse travels from the Apex back up the ventricles. Page 1 of 2 A and P 2 - Mr. Cates 10/10/16 Extrinsic Pathway -means that electrical impulse is influenced by outside nerves. -Heart Rate is initiated by the SA node, but the Autonomic nervous system controls that. -The nerves come from the medulla oblongata. Comparison between the Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Sympathetic Nervous System Parasympathetic Nervous System (Rest and Digest - Stay alive, conserve energy) Cardioacceleratory Center (means that it tells the Cardioinhibitory Center (means that it tells the heart beat to speed up) heart beat to slow down) Sends message through spinal nerves which Sends message through vagus nerves which innervates the SA, AV, and Myocardium. innervates the SA and AV nodes. DOES affect the force of contraction Does not affect force of contraction Heart rate increases Heart rate decreases Both Sympathetic and Parasympathetic work together which is called “duel innervation.” Electrocardiogram (EKG or ECG) -The bumps in the line are called deflection waves. Arrhythmia or dysrhythmia mean that its a not normal rhythm or irregular heartbeat. Flatline means that there is no electrical disturbance and the line has no deflection waves. Fibrillation can be called a bag full of worms. Defibrillation fixes this by sending a huge shock that depolarizes everything. Stops everything then restarts. Ex. Like an orchestra conductor who yells “shut up!” and then gets them all started at the same time. AED is what you use in CPR to deliver that shock. Heart blocks are when the impulse from the SA or AV are blocked and can’t travel. P wave shows the Atrium QRS represents Ventricles T is the repolarization or relaxing contracting contracting of the Ventricles. Page 2 of 2 A and P 2 - Mr. Cates 10/12/16 Chapter 19, 20 - Cardiac Output, Stroke Volume, Systemic and Pulmonary Circulation Cardiac Output -amount of blood that is pumped through single ventricle contraction in 1 minute. -is determined by heart rate and stroke volume. Heart rate is number of beats per minute. Stroke volume is the volume of blood ejected by the left ventricle in one contraction. CO = HR x SV Example: Stroke Volume = 70 mL blood Heart rate = 75bpm CO = 75bpm x 70 mL/b = 5250 mL/min = 5.25 L/min This makes sense because the amount of blood in the body is 5L. -You control cardiac output by influencing heart rate or stroke volume. So, more to get more Cardiac output, you could increase heart rate or increase stroke volume. -A small heart would have to beat faster to keep the cardiac output the same as a large heart. Cardiac Reserve (CR) -the capacity of the “reserve” blood you have comparing the resting cardiac output (which is lower) to the cardiac output during exercise (the higher number). CO max - CO rest = CR (how fast can you go from 0) Ex. Being overweight and trying to run up the high on a rainy day and not being able to because there’s no cardiac reserve built up. -Cardiac Reserve can be increased through exercise which strengthens the heart. Afterload -the resistance in arteries after the heart ejects the blood. -If greater resistance such as in atherosclerosis (plaque in arteries) exists, then the Cardiac output decreases (can’t get the blood out efficiently) Stroke Volume -is affected by preload and afterload. Preload is the stretch in the ventricle by the incoming blood. Which is basically the EDV. How much blood is in the ventricle after it has filled. -End-diastolic volume (EDV) (How much blood is in the ventricle “loaded up” before contraction) -End-systolic volume (ESV) (How much blood is remaining in ventricle contraction) SV = EDV - ESV Page 1 of 2 A and P 2 - Mr. Cates 10/12/16 Systemic vs. Pulmonary Circulation Handout: this is more explanation to the drawn square with the the break up of the circuits. Numbers we need to know: 1. Percent of blood volume in: Systemic and Pulmonary - then splitting that up how much in veins, arteries, and capillaries 1. Blood in Systemic system is 70% (has to be more to make it to body) 2. Blood in Pulmonary system is 18% (doesn’t have to travel far to get to the lungs) 3. Blood in chambers of heart is 12% 4. Total blood split into a) Arteries only 10% b) Capillaries 5% c) Veins 55%because systemic veins also act as a reservoir. 2. Speed of blood flow 1. Arteries 40 cm/s 2. Capillaries 0.1 cm/s or 1 mm/s you can remember this by “1 Mississippi” 3. Veins 20 cm/s 3. Pressure Pulse Pressure: 1. - Systolic pressure (120 mm Hg) - Diastolic pressure (80 mm Hg) = PP (40 mm Hg). 2. Mean Arterial Pressure - 93 mm Hg (Diastolic pressure + 1/3 pulse pressure) 3. Pressure in the Arteries (93 mm Hg), Capillaries (20 mm Hg), Veins (0 mm Hg) 4. Bad ranges: -65 mm Hg means you are unconscious -45 mm Hg means kidneys are shutting down. Length of capillary (1mm), diameter (10mm) 4. Page 2 of 2 A and P 2 - Mr. Cates 10/14/16 Chapter 20 - Different types of vessels, Pumps Vessel anatomy Layers of the wall: Tunica intima (smooth layer to protect RBC’s from bumping), Tunica media, Tunica externa (Adventitia is another name. Means adventure.) Subendothelial -All epithelium has a basement membrane. -Areolar tissue can convert to adipose. -If you continue to add adipose in the areolar space then it makes a bump inside. This leads to a clot. That blockage is called an occlusion. -Occlusion in the R and L coronary artery is life threatening. -To fix this you can’t just scrape out the fat. What they do is called an angioplasty. They put a catheter into the artery, then the balloon inflicts which flattens and packs the bump of fat down. -The bump means that spot will be weaker than the rest of the arteries. -Atherosclerosis is fat cells causing a hard artery wall that has a constricted flow. Different types of vessels 1. Arteries a) Elastic Arteries (structural name), Conducting artery (functional name). -Aorta has this type of vessel, so it can expand and thereby absorbing the shock. It absorbs the shock too. The absorbing shock is called elastic recoil. Ex. Father and child swinging and the father allowing the kid to swing back a little before using that momentum to send him off again. b) Muscular or Distributing Artery -To specific body region. -The vessels push back to distribute the blood. -Fluids go along the path of least resistance. Bulk of blood diverts to different pathway if one is constricted. (Just like in vessel repair). -ex. Restriction will make velocity go up. Like a garden hose. 2. Arterioles -Majority of distributing happens in the arteries. 3. Capillaries (Blood flows from arterioles, to capillaries, to venules)
 Capillaries are NOT found in epithelial, cartilage, cornea of eye or lens. These are avascular. a) Continuous - most common. They have gaps between cells that are called intercellular clefts. These gaps are what enable the white bloods cells to “diapedesis” b) Fenestrated - Fenestra = window ex. defenestration means to throw out of the window. -Found in the Endocrine system (makes it easier to dump hormones) -Found in Kidneys c) Sinusoid -Found in Liver and Spleen (Fixed macrophages are mugging the old RBC’s) -Many Channels ex. swamps. 4. Venues (-ules means small) Relatively porous Page 1 of 2 A and P 2 - Mr. Cates 10/14/16 5. Veins -Have valves (not complicated) Blood can’t come back up. -Arms and legs are like the rungs of a ladder. -If valves fail, you get varicose veins in legs (vessels balloon out). -Varicose veins are called hemorrhoids in the anal canal. ex. Elvis dying on toilet 6. Vena Cava -Faster blood flows down center. That is called Laminar flow. Lamina means layer. The center is faster because it is friction free. ex. boat floating down river faster in center. Respiratory and Muscular Pump -Both of these work together to bring the blood back up to the heart 1. Respiratory Pump -Diaphragm contracting causes the blood to be “sucked” up and when relaxed blood can’t flow back through the valves. P.C. 2. Muscular Pump -Skeletal muscles “milk” blood upwards towards heart. P.C. aviva Page 2 of 2


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