PSY201H - Chapter 6 Consciousness
PSY201H - Chapter 6 Consciousness PSY 201H
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brandon Harvey on Sunday October 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 201H at Marshall University taught by Dr. Fugett in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see General Psychology Honors in Psychology at Marshall University.
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Date Created: 10/16/16
Chapter 6 Consciousness Consciousness o Awareness of one’s surroundings and of what’s in one’s mind at a given moment o The stage for the brain’s “main event” Global workspace – various sensory elements being brought together o Many cognitive processes are “automatic” (not consciousness) o Imagining, planning, sequencing, and communicating require consciousness. Wakefulness and Awareness o Wakefulness – alertness or the extent to which a person is awake or asleep; reticular formation o Awareness – the monitoring of information from the environment and from one’s own thought Drunkenness: awake but not very aware Minimal Consciousness o Fainting o Coma – eyes are closed and the person is unresponsive Injury/illness that affects area of brain that controls wakefulness o Vegetative state – eyes are open and the person is otherwise unresponsive Wakefulness without awareness o Minimally conscious people are barely awake or aware but show signs of intentional behavior, but cannot communicate Moderate Consciousness o Tip of the tongue o Sleep and dream Full Consciousness o Flow – we are so engaged and focused time does not matter o Mindfulness – heightened awareness of the present moment, of events in one’s environment and events in one’s own mind Selective attention o Attention – the limited capacity to process information that is under conscious control How we direct spotlight of awareness o Ability to focus awareness on specific features in the environment while ignoring others Dichotic listening task (hearing/shadowing what is being said in right ear, while also playing something in the left ear that we ignore) Cocktail party effect (beginning of class; room that’s really loud with conversations but you only pay attention to the conversation you are having, but can become aware of other conversations if your name is said) In-attentional blindness (not paying attention for things, and the things change) Perceptual load model (do not notice distracters when primary task consumes all of attention Synchronization Sustained Attention o Ability to maintain focused awareness on a target or an idea Multitasking o Cannot really do more than one thing at a time Bottleneck of resources o Rapid switching back and forth between tasks o Multitasking reduces performance/learning Mobile devices Meditation and Conscious Experience o Meditation – wide variety of practices that people use to calm the mind, stabilize concentration, focus attention and enhance awareness of the present moment o Mindfulness meditation Encourages attention to details of immediate experience Can improve attentional skills Appears to: Enhance well-being Reduce stress and depression Improve physical health Reduce pain – less self-reporting of pain Sleeping o Sleep is reversible o Hypothalamus; suprachiasmatic nucleus o Melatonin o Circadian rhythms – variations in physiological processes that cycle within approximately a 24 hr. period Awake – beta waves Awake but relaxed and drowsy (am I awake?) – alpha waves Non-REM (rapid eye movement) Stages 1-4 Theta waves – stage 1-2 Delta waves – stage 3 REM (quick eye movements that occur during sleep, thought to mark dreaming – replaces stage 1 in cycle o Development of sleep over life Amount of time spent in REM sleep declines rapidly between birth and childhood REM sleep continues dropping as we age REM = brain growth, neural plasticity? o Function of sleep Restore neural growth Help metabolically cleanup the brain Consolidates memory Produces enzymes that destroy free radicals which otherwise would case cell damage Not entirely sure what sleep does Hippocampus o Sleep Deprivation and Sleep Debt 40% adults in US are sleep deprived Sleep debt: with too little sleep, the brain “owes” the body a debt to be paid back later Deprivation results in daytime drowsiness and impairs attention, learning, memory, and mental health o Disorders of sleep Insomnia – inability to sleep; brain too active Sleepwalking Narcolepsy – excessive daytime sleepiness Night terrors Hypersomnia – more than 10 hrs. sleep Dreaming o An attempt to fulfill unacceptable desires or satisfy unconscious wishes o Both REM and non-REM o Cognitive theory - Dreams are not different from everyday thinking Standard processes Imagery Memory Speech Problem solving Lucid dreaming – know you are dreaming Hypnosis o State characterized by focused attention, suggestibility, absorption, lack of voluntary control over behavior and suspension of critical faculties Occurs when instructed by someone trained in hypnosis Only about 15% of population is highly hypnotizable o Stroop effect – delayed reaction when there is a mismatch color name and the text color Altering Consciousness with Drugs o Psychoactive Drugs – natural or synthesized drug that produces a change in conscious experience Physical dependence – need to maintain normal function Tolerance (takes more and more of same drug to reach initial high), withdrawal (experience opposite of any positives of drugs) Psychological dependence Alleviate boredom, stress Regulate mood Addiction Continue to use in spite of knowing its harms Depressants o Frontal lobe is suppressed, so decision making is suppressed o Alcohol – most widely used Blood alcohol concentration Cirrhosis of the liver Binge drinking 5 drinks in a row (given setting) for men 4 drinks in a row for women Heavy binge drinking: +2 Light to moderate use might have health benefits dependent upon type Wine on the heart o Sedatives Barbiturates, benzodiazepines, and tranquilizers Increases depressive nature of alcohol when taken together Tylenol and alcohol both affect liver o Opioids/narcotics Opium, morphine, heroin, codeine, oxycodone, and hydrocodone Endorphins – opioid like compound produced by body Not good with alcohol Stimulants o Activates CNS o Caffeine Coffee, tea, cocoa, soft drinks, energy drinks Increases urine output o Nicotine Tobacco (in all of its forms) o Cocaine Inject (free-base) Smoke (crack) o Amphetamines “Meth” – harmful physical and psychological affects, highly addictive Dexedrine “Speed” o Ecstasy MDMA Stimulant and mild hallucinogen Tactile Hallucinogens o Marijuana Cannabis sativa plant How much is it addictive? Psychological? Physical? Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) Endocannabinoids – marijuana like chemicals produced by our own body Makes time appear to slow and makes food more desirable o LSD Lysergic acid diethylamide – 25 “acid” Manmade drug Alter visual perceptions, enhanced color perception, “see” sound, “hear” images Increase dopamine and serotonin which in turn increases glutamate Likes to stay in fatty parts, esp. brain, and rereleased when fat is burned “flash backs” o Psilocybin Hallucinogen from mushrooms
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