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PSY201H - Chapter 7 Memory

by: Brandon Harvey

PSY201H - Chapter 7 Memory PSY 201H

Marketplace > Marshall University > Psychology > PSY 201H > PSY201H Chapter 7 Memory
Brandon Harvey
GPA 4.0

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About this Document

This chapter goes into the different types of memory as well as memory loss. Chapters 6-9 are on the second exam.
General Psychology Honors
Dr. Fugett
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brandon Harvey on Sunday October 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 201H at Marshall University taught by Dr. Fugett in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see General Psychology Honors in Psychology at Marshall University.

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Date Created: 10/16/16
Chapter 7 Memory  Memory o H.M. hit with bike; removed hippocampus from both sides; seizures stopped, but could not form new memories; those that formed before surgery remained o Ability to store and use information o What has been learned and remembered o Not necessarily conscious  Much of what we remember cannot be intentionally be brought into awareness  Procedural o Tying your shoe o Riding a bike o Three stage model of memory – classifies memory as Sensory, Short term, or Long term  Sensory memory o Hold information in its original sensory form  Auditory memory lasts a little bit longer o Held for a brief period of time, usually about half a second or less, for all senses o Iconic memory  Brief visual record of image on the retina o Echoic memory  Short retention of sounds  We perceive pauses in speech  Short-term or Working Memory o Not synonyms o Short-term: 30 sec long holding area, no working, just holding  7 items (chunks) typically within range of 5 to 9 - chunking  Local phone numbers (stored as 3 chunks, rather than a list of 10 individual numbers)  DRM test (read a list of words, and must recall as many words as possible)  Mnemonics compact information o PEMDAS or ROY G. BIV o Working memory: peart of memory required to attend to and solve a problem at hand; pull information from short-term and manipulate it  How much is in your bank account? – long to short term memory  Keeps track of what we just said  Can be transferred to long term if they’re practiced o Temporarily stores a limited amount of information o Baddeley’s Model  Central executive  Attending  Temporary stores  Storing  Rehearsing (elaborate) o Visiospatial sketchpad  3 or 4 images o Episodic buffer  Specific events  Perfect snapchat o Phonological loop  Language and sound  All three require rehearsal o Serial position effect  People are better able to recall the beginning and ends of lists and tend to forget middle items  Primacy effect  Remembering first sensation  Quickly rehearsed and added to long term  Adding more gets rid of primacy effect  Recency effect  Remembering most common or last  Held in short term  Recall is superior without the interfering task  Long term memory o Capacity to store vast amounts of information  infinite capacity o Anywhere beyond 30 secs to a lifetime o Types:  Implicit memory: memory without consciousness; ride your bike  Cannot directly recall this type  Muscle memory or procedural memory  Priming – recall is improved by prior exposure to the same stimuli  Explicit memory: anything you can talk about; where’s my keys; facts and events  Semantic o Common knowledge memory  Episodic o Personal memories, autobiographical o Stages:  Encoding  Means by which we attend to, take in, and process new information  Automatic (little conscious attention) vs effortful (careful attention) processing  Depth of processing (from shallow to deep) o Structural: word structure; low recall probability o Phonemic: more processing than just words, sound of the word o Semantic: meaning of the word, saturating with memory; high recall probability  Mnemonic devices – correlating route home with list of words; acronyms  Consolidation  Stabilizing or solidifying a memory  Storage  Retention of memory over time  Store memories in three ways: o Hierarchies – most specific to most general o Schemas – rules of thumb; mental framework that develop from our experiences with particular objects or events o Associative networks – chain of association between related concepts  Association – linking concepts together  Each concept in a network is a node o Neural networks o Parallel distributed processing – well known memory storage models  Retrieval  Recovery of stored information o Emotional memories are easier to recall than factual ones  Flashbulb memories  Challenger explosion  9/11/2001  Tend to be distorted o Cerebellum/striatum – implicit, procedural memories o Amygdala – emotional memories o Hippocampus – explicit, declarative memories  “Forgetting” o Interference  Disruption of memory due to the presence of competing information  Retroactive interference  Getting a new number and forgetting the old one  Proactive interference  Memory now interferes with something in the future o Absent-mindedness  Inattention to a stimulus impairs one’s ability to encode, store, and later retrieve information o Blocking  Inability to retrieve stored information  Tip of the tongue phenomenon o Repression  Retrieval is actively inhibited o Suggestibility  Memories are implanted in our minds from someone else o False memories  Memories for events that never happened but were suggested by someone o Recovered memory  Supposedly from a real event; a memory that was encoded and stored but is not retrieved for a long period of time; memory is retrieved after a later event brings it into consciousness  Memory Loss by Brain Injury and Disease o Amnesia  Anterograde  Inability to remember events and experiences that occurs after an injury or the onset of disease  No new long term memory  Wernicke’s aphasia  Retrograde  Inability to recall events or experiences that happened before the onset of disease or injury  Might only involve incident that causes amnesia  Some may come back o Alzheimer’s


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