New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

PSY201H - Chapter 8 Learning

by: Brandon Harvey

PSY201H - Chapter 8 Learning PSY 201H

Marketplace > Marshall University > Psychology > PSY 201H > PSY201H Chapter 8 Learning
Brandon Harvey
GPA 4.0

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

This chapter covers the two major types of learning - classical and operant. Chapters 6-9 are on the second exam.
General Psychology Honors
Dr. Fugett
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in General Psychology Honors

Popular in Psychology

This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brandon Harvey on Sunday October 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 201H at Marshall University taught by Dr. Fugett in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see General Psychology Honors in Psychology at Marshall University.


Reviews for PSY201H - Chapter 8 Learning


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 10/16/16
Chapter 8 Learning  Learning o An enduring change in behavior that occurs with experience  Can’t “unlearn”  Different forms of learning  Learning and memory work together; without one, the other cannot happen  Those that fire together, wire together  Association o One piece of information is linked repeatedly with another  The organism connects the two sources of information  This is the key to the two major conditioning models: classical and operant  Conditioning: form of associative learning in which a behavior becomes more likely because the organism links that behavior with certain events in its environment  Classical Condition o A neutral stimulus becomes associated with a stimulus to which the learner has an automatic, inborn response – natural reflex  Seinfeld – sandwich and sex o Ivan Pavlov  Dogs and salivation for food o How it works:  Unconditioned response (UCR)  Automatic, inborn reaction to a stimulus  Innate stimulus response association o Salivation  Unconditioned stimulus (UCS)  Environmental input that produces the unconditioned response o Food  Conditioned stimulus (CS)  Previously neutral input that an organism learns to associate with the UCS o Ringing bell then give food  Conditioned response (CR)  Behavior that an organism learns to perform when presented with the CS alone o Bell-food, bell-food, bell-salivation w/ no food  CS  CR = learned association  UCS follows the neutral stimulus o Phobias, ProActive medicine, taste eversion, drug addictions o Backward Conditioning  Neutral stimulus follows the UCS (not very effective) – vomit, then eat food o Two fundamental Criteria:  Multiple pairings of UCS and CS for association to be learned  Close in time: UCS and CS paired close together for association to form o Stimulus generalization  Extension of association between UCS and CS to include a broad array of similar stimuli o Stimulus discrimination  Restriction of a CR to only the exact CS to which it was conditioned o Extinction  Weakening and eventual disappearance of a conditioned response which occurs when the UCS is no longer paired with the CS o Spontaneous recovery  Sudden recovery of conditioned response  Weaker with every recurrence o Watson and Rayner  Behaviorist  Little Albert – fears white rat among other white fluffy things  Operant Conditioning o Thorndike (1905)  Law of Effect  The consequences of a behavior increase (or decrease) the likelihood that the behavior will be repeated o Operant conditioning: The process of changing behavior by manipulating the consequences of that behavior (Sheldon giving Penny chocolates for good behavior)  Skinner (1938)  Operant: behavior that acts – or operates – on the environment to produce specific consequences  Voluntary behavior o Reinforcer  Internal (feels good) or external (treat) event that increases the frequency of a behavior  Primary reinforcers  Not learned  Innate and satisfy biological needs; naturally make you feel good  Food, water, sex, artificial sweeteners, and drugs (caffeine and nicotine)  Secondary (conditioned) reinforcers  Learned by association (classical conditioning)  Money, grades, or approval (internal, verbal)  Positive reinforcement: adding a desirable stimulus  Negative reinforcement: removing an unpleasant stimulus  removing chores because of good grades o Punishment  Decreases the frequency of a behavior  Positive punishment: adding an unpleasant stimulus  spanking  Negative punishment: removing desirable stimulus  Less strong at changing behavior than reinforcement o Skinner box  Rat pushes lever and is rewarded  Shaping: reinforcing successive approximations to target behavior  Extinction: stop reinforcing o Useful is treating phobias, self-harming individuals with intellectual deficiencies, suicidal teens, and autism  Schedules of Reinforcement o Continuous reinforcement: rewarding a behavior every time it occurs; more chance of extinction o Intermittent reinforcement: reinforcement of a behavior but not after every response  Produces a stronger behavioral response  Reinforcement is expected, but does not happen every time so the behavior is repeated until thing is achieved (kid and toy)  More frequent responding  More resistant to extinction o Fixed ratio (FR): pattern of intermittent reinforcement in which reinforcement follows a set of number of responses  Restaurant punch cards o Variable Ratio (VR): pattern of intermittent reinforcement in which the number of responses needed for reinforcement changes  Slot machines  Harder to get rid of o Fixed interval (FI): pattern of intermittent reinforcement in which responses are always reinforced after a set period of time has passed  Biweekly pay o Variable interval (VI): pattern of intermittent reinforcement in which responses are reinforced after time periods of different duration have passed  State pay: 15-30 or 16-31 or 14-28 o We are bad at estimating time, but relatively good at estimating ratio of response  Conditioned Taste Aversion o Learned avoidance of a particular taste when nausea occurs at about the same time as the food o Rats liked saccharin water, but then disliked after water was irradiated  Instinctive Drift o Learned behavior that shifts towards instinctive, unlearned behavior o Biological constraint model – some behaviors are inherently more likely to be learned than others  Latent Learning o Learning that occurs in the absence of reinforcement and is not demonstrated until later, when reinforcement occurs  Kids skins knee, gets a cool Band-Aid, and every kid wants a cool Band-Aid o Tolman  Cognitive maps  Rats without reinforcement made maps of the maze, and when reinforcement was given they used maps and ran the maze faster  How many windows are in your house?  Directions to a store in the mall  Social Learning Theory o A description of the kind of learning that occurs when we model the behavior of others o For some neurons in the frontal lobe, watching someone else do something is like doing it yourself  Hypothesis – children with autism may have deficits in mirror neuron systems o Enactive learning – learning by doing o Observational learning – learning by watching – imitation, mirror neurons and learning o Modeling – process of observing and imitating behaviors performed by others  Bobo Doll  Synaptic Change During Learning o Learning causes physical changes to the neural network in the brain o Wire together fire together o Practice makes permanent o Synaptic connections can weaken if they are not regularly used  A biological contribution to forgetting o Enriched environments cause neural growth o Hippocampus  Psychology in the Real World o Sleep facilitates complex learning  Attention, encoding, storage, and retrieval


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Anthony Lee UC Santa Barbara

"I bought an awesome study guide, which helped me get an A in my Math 34B class this quarter!"

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.