PSY201H - Chapter 8 Learning
PSY201H - Chapter 8 Learning PSY 201H
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Popular in Psychology
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brandon Harvey on Sunday October 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 201H at Marshall University taught by Dr. Fugett in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see General Psychology Honors in Psychology at Marshall University.
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Date Created: 10/16/16
Chapter 8 Learning Learning o An enduring change in behavior that occurs with experience Can’t “unlearn” Different forms of learning Learning and memory work together; without one, the other cannot happen Those that fire together, wire together Association o One piece of information is linked repeatedly with another The organism connects the two sources of information This is the key to the two major conditioning models: classical and operant Conditioning: form of associative learning in which a behavior becomes more likely because the organism links that behavior with certain events in its environment Classical Condition o A neutral stimulus becomes associated with a stimulus to which the learner has an automatic, inborn response – natural reflex Seinfeld – sandwich and sex o Ivan Pavlov Dogs and salivation for food o How it works: Unconditioned response (UCR) Automatic, inborn reaction to a stimulus Innate stimulus response association o Salivation Unconditioned stimulus (UCS) Environmental input that produces the unconditioned response o Food Conditioned stimulus (CS) Previously neutral input that an organism learns to associate with the UCS o Ringing bell then give food Conditioned response (CR) Behavior that an organism learns to perform when presented with the CS alone o Bell-food, bell-food, bell-salivation w/ no food CS CR = learned association UCS follows the neutral stimulus o Phobias, ProActive medicine, taste eversion, drug addictions o Backward Conditioning Neutral stimulus follows the UCS (not very effective) – vomit, then eat food o Two fundamental Criteria: Multiple pairings of UCS and CS for association to be learned Close in time: UCS and CS paired close together for association to form o Stimulus generalization Extension of association between UCS and CS to include a broad array of similar stimuli o Stimulus discrimination Restriction of a CR to only the exact CS to which it was conditioned o Extinction Weakening and eventual disappearance of a conditioned response which occurs when the UCS is no longer paired with the CS o Spontaneous recovery Sudden recovery of conditioned response Weaker with every recurrence o Watson and Rayner Behaviorist Little Albert – fears white rat among other white fluffy things Operant Conditioning o Thorndike (1905) Law of Effect The consequences of a behavior increase (or decrease) the likelihood that the behavior will be repeated o Operant conditioning: The process of changing behavior by manipulating the consequences of that behavior (Sheldon giving Penny chocolates for good behavior) Skinner (1938) Operant: behavior that acts – or operates – on the environment to produce specific consequences Voluntary behavior o Reinforcer Internal (feels good) or external (treat) event that increases the frequency of a behavior Primary reinforcers Not learned Innate and satisfy biological needs; naturally make you feel good Food, water, sex, artificial sweeteners, and drugs (caffeine and nicotine) Secondary (conditioned) reinforcers Learned by association (classical conditioning) Money, grades, or approval (internal, verbal) Positive reinforcement: adding a desirable stimulus Negative reinforcement: removing an unpleasant stimulus removing chores because of good grades o Punishment Decreases the frequency of a behavior Positive punishment: adding an unpleasant stimulus spanking Negative punishment: removing desirable stimulus Less strong at changing behavior than reinforcement o Skinner box Rat pushes lever and is rewarded Shaping: reinforcing successive approximations to target behavior Extinction: stop reinforcing o Useful is treating phobias, self-harming individuals with intellectual deficiencies, suicidal teens, and autism Schedules of Reinforcement o Continuous reinforcement: rewarding a behavior every time it occurs; more chance of extinction o Intermittent reinforcement: reinforcement of a behavior but not after every response Produces a stronger behavioral response Reinforcement is expected, but does not happen every time so the behavior is repeated until thing is achieved (kid and toy) More frequent responding More resistant to extinction o Fixed ratio (FR): pattern of intermittent reinforcement in which reinforcement follows a set of number of responses Restaurant punch cards o Variable Ratio (VR): pattern of intermittent reinforcement in which the number of responses needed for reinforcement changes Slot machines Harder to get rid of o Fixed interval (FI): pattern of intermittent reinforcement in which responses are always reinforced after a set period of time has passed Biweekly pay o Variable interval (VI): pattern of intermittent reinforcement in which responses are reinforced after time periods of different duration have passed State pay: 15-30 or 16-31 or 14-28 o We are bad at estimating time, but relatively good at estimating ratio of response Conditioned Taste Aversion o Learned avoidance of a particular taste when nausea occurs at about the same time as the food o Rats liked saccharin water, but then disliked after water was irradiated Instinctive Drift o Learned behavior that shifts towards instinctive, unlearned behavior o Biological constraint model – some behaviors are inherently more likely to be learned than others Latent Learning o Learning that occurs in the absence of reinforcement and is not demonstrated until later, when reinforcement occurs Kids skins knee, gets a cool Band-Aid, and every kid wants a cool Band-Aid o Tolman Cognitive maps Rats without reinforcement made maps of the maze, and when reinforcement was given they used maps and ran the maze faster How many windows are in your house? Directions to a store in the mall Social Learning Theory o A description of the kind of learning that occurs when we model the behavior of others o For some neurons in the frontal lobe, watching someone else do something is like doing it yourself Hypothesis – children with autism may have deficits in mirror neuron systems o Enactive learning – learning by doing o Observational learning – learning by watching – imitation, mirror neurons and learning o Modeling – process of observing and imitating behaviors performed by others Bobo Doll Synaptic Change During Learning o Learning causes physical changes to the neural network in the brain o Wire together fire together o Practice makes permanent o Synaptic connections can weaken if they are not regularly used A biological contribution to forgetting o Enriched environments cause neural growth o Hippocampus Psychology in the Real World o Sleep facilitates complex learning Attention, encoding, storage, and retrieval