PSY201H - Chapter 9 Language and Thought
PSY201H - Chapter 9 Language and Thought PSY 201H
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brandon Harvey on Sunday October 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 201H at Marshall University taught by Dr. Fugett in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see General Psychology Honors in Psychology at Marshall University.
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Date Created: 10/16/16
Chapter 9 Language and Thought The Nature of Language o Human language: open and symbolic communication system Language without writing and language without verbal communication Eye roll is communication is not language Middle finger, emoji are language Rules of grammar Prescriptive – never end sentence with preposition Generative – rules similar across the world Allows its users to express abstract and distant ideas o Syntax: rules for arranging words and symbols in sentences o Grammar: entire set of rules for a particular language o Protolanguage: pre language Language Development in Individuals o Wernicke’s develops before Broca’s o Stages of language development Cooing – first 6 months (aa and eh) Babbling – 5 to 6 months (baba and geebo) Pruning – getting rid of sounds not prominent in their culture One-word utterances - ~12 months (No! and More?) Learn last sentence word first Two-word utterances - ~18 months (Go way! And My ball.) Sentence phase – 2.5 to 3 years (You got my car.) o Sensitivity period – 1 to about 12 years of age is the optimal language learning time Severe lack of language exposure during this period may prevent language form ever fully developing – Genie (stunted language) Theories of Language Acquisition o Sociocultural theories Environmental influence and imitation Culture Socioeconomic status Birth order School and peers Television Parents o Child-directed speech – changes in adult speech patterns “baby talk” o Conditioning and Learning Theory Skinner Language develops just like any other behavior – it is reinforced and shaped The progression of language skills noted earlier emerges because of shaping, successive approximations and reinforcement o Nativist Theory Brain is wired for language Chomsky language acquisition device – an innate, biologically based capacity to acquire language o Grammar – more innate; vocabulary – more environmental o Birds sing, whales sing, bees dance, apes communicate only what they want other apes to do o Apes cannot speak, but can learn ASL o Linguistic determinism hypothesis: our language determines our way of thinking and our perceptions of the world language creates thought as much as thought creates language Thinking, reasoning and decision making o Cognitive psychology – the science of ow people think, learn, remember, and perceive o Cognition – mental processes involved in acquiring, processing, and storing knowledge o Mental representation – structure in the mind that represents an external thing Past and future images Represent thoughts o Visual representation Visual imagery Visual representations created by the brain after the original stimulus is no longer present Activates same part of brain as visual perception o Mental Rotation o Concept: mental grouping of objects, events, or people; most basic unit of knowledge Concept hierarchy: relates concepts from specific to general Parallel distributed processing – associations activate many networks CAN, HAS, IS o Category: concept that organizes other concepts around what they have in common o Prototypes: best fitting examples of a category Robin is a prototype compared to ostrich for “bird” Reasoning o the process of drawing inferences or conclusions from principles and evidence o Deductive: reason from general statements of what is known to specific conclusions o Inductive: draws general conclusions from specific evidence Casual inferences: judgments about whether one thing causes another thing Confirmation bias: tendency to selectively attend to information that supports one’s general beliefs while ignoring information or evidence that contradicts one’s beliefs o Critical thinking: analyze, generate, defend, infer, interpret, explain, self-regulate o Meta cognitive thinking – ability first to think and then to reflect one’s own thinking; oversight of one’s own thinking processes o Heuristics: mental shortcuts; representative: estimate probability of event based off “normal” event; availability: decisions based availability to awareness Conjunction fallacy: people say that the combination of two events is more likely that either event alone