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Week 8 Notes

by: Benjamin Beaty

Week 8 Notes Soc 1000

Benjamin Beaty
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Social Stratification
Intro to Sociology
Molly Bukky
Class Notes




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Benjamin Beaty on Sunday October 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Soc 1000 at Ohio University taught by Molly Bukky in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Intro to Sociology in Sociology at Ohio University.

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Date Created: 10/16/16
Social Stratification Monday, October 10, 2016 9:43 AM Stratification - different levels and types of people in society Social Differentiation - "making people different  Social characteristics are used to enhance the power of one group over another  Leads to social inequality and stratification Stratification  System in which large groups of people are divided into layers (strata) according to their property (wealth), prestige, and power  Stratification helps perpetuate unequal economic rewards and power in society Ascribed and Achieved Status  Ascribed - social position assigned to person by society (typically at birth) without regard to his/her unique talents or characteristics  Achieved - a social position a person attains, largely through his/her own efforts Systems of Social Stratification  Slavery - most severe form of legalized social inequality. Stratification where people are owned  Caste - stratification system based upon ascribed status - typically hereditary and immobile (racial caste after slavery - Jim Crow)  Class - fluid, partly ascribed, partly achieved, econ based, large and impersonal Social Inequality  Members of society have different amounts of wealth, prestige, or power  Amount of social inequality in each given society varies, but all societies have so degree of it (thus, soc universal) Universal Soc Strat  Functionalist perspective: motivating qualified people o Society ensures that all positions are filled o Some positions are more important than others o More important positions filled by more qualified people o To motivate qualified people, they must be rewarded  Critique of functionalist o How do we know the positions most rewarded are most important? o If stratification is functional, it should benefit everyone o Is US truly a meritocracy?  Conflict Perspective o No society can exist unless organized o Leadership means inequalities of power o Human nature us self-centered o Therefore, we will act in a way to minimize our benefits o Ideology vs. force  Controlling ideas  Its easier to get people to do what you want if they believe it  Controlling info and using tech. Global Strat  High Income Countries: Western Europe, US, Canada, Japan, Singapore, Hong Kong, Taiwan o First to industrialize o 18% of world population, 68% of annual output o High GNI (gross nat income) - $38,000 o High life expectancy - 79 o Low birth rate - 1.7 o Low infant mortality rate (5/1,000)  Upper -Middle Income country - Mexico, most of South Am, oil rich counties in middle east and north Africa, east and southeast Asia, China, Russia o GNI $7,000 o Life expectancy 74 o 1.9 births per woman o Infant mortality rate 16/1,000  Lower-middle income countries - portions of central (Guatemala, Honduras) and south Am (Bolivia, Paraguay), India, Pakistan, Mongolia, Pacific Islands (Philippines, Indonesia), parts of Africa o GNI $1,913 o Life expectancy 66 o Birth rate 2.9 o Infant Mortality rate (46/1,000)  Low Income Countries (eastern, western, and sub-saharan Africa, Cambodia, North Korea, Nepal, Bangladesh) o Transitioning from agricultural to industrial o GNI $58 o Lower Life expectancy 62 o High birth rate 4.1 o Higher infant mortality rate 56/1,000 How the world's nations became stratified  Modernization theory (structural-functionalist, market oriented)  Dependency Theory (conflict, exploitation) o Colonialism  World System Theory (refocus level of analysis)  Core, semi-peripheral, peripheral Inequality & Stratification  Social inequality is the condition under which members of society have different amounts of wealth, prestige, or power  Sociologists are interested in the meaning of these differences (whether they are real or imagined) to both our self and others  Primary form of stratification and inequality in our society? o Social Class - a social ranking (form of stratification) also based primarily on economic position, but also involves status Determinants of Social Class Karl Marx's two class system  Based on the means of production o Bourgeoisie (capitalist) o Proletariat (worker)  False consciousness  Class consciousness Max Weber - the three Ps  Property - wealth (both income and assets)  Prestige - often derived from property  Power - ability to get people to do what you want, even when there is resistance Social Class Today, we use these three components to determine social class:  Income & wealth - economic gain in the form of money from wealth and labor o Wealth total of our assets  Education - the best predictor of social class in the US today o One of the ways in which we can achieve a higher social status o Related to both income and occupation  Occupation - measured by prestige level o Top half prestige: surgeon, physician, lawyer, dentist, etc. o Bottom half prestige: farmer, correctional officer, hotel clerk, etc. We represent our social class through status symbols:  Status symbols - representations of your position in society  Exs: consumerism, products, clothes, cars, houses, zip codes Social Class Divisions  Capitalist/upper - 1-2% o Old money is the most prestigious o New money ish viewed as less prestigious o Prestige for everything in life style o Heirs of large estates o Top execs o Sports/Hollywood/political elites  Upper Middle - 15% o Postgraduate edu o Professionals and managers o Conspicuous consumption very important - more so than any other class o Deferred gratification (go to college to invest in future instead of making money immediately out of HS) begins here  Lower Middle- 30-35% o HS/college undergrad o Middle management/skilled labor o More susceptible to economic dislocation than upper middle o Strong deferred gratification  Working- 30-35% o Unskilled blue collar and white collar workers o High school o More susceptible to economic dislocation than lower middle class o Concentrated in urban neighborhoods but also present throughout rural America o Deferred gratifiction less important o May be partially dependent on social support programs  Working Poor/Lower - 13-24% o Mobility based on poverty (survival) o Concentrated in urban core and rural areas but less visible in rural areas o Deferred gratification mostly nonexistent Social Class in America  Tenets of the American dream (belief and value statements in American culture)  Everyone can participate equally  Reasonable to anticipate success  Success is the result of individual characteristics  Success is associated with virtue and merit  BUT= your status location is largely determined by family, community, social class, and they influence your networks and opportunities Social Class Location and Status  Social class we are in affects financial capital, social capital, and cultural capital Consequences of Social Class  Family life o Choice of spouses, likelihood of divorce  Education o Amount of education, type of education, quality of education  Religion o If Christian, classes tend to cluster into denominations  Upper class: episcopal, Anglican  Middle class: Methodism. Lutheranism, Catholicism  Lower and middle working class: baptist and other evangelical religions  Politics o Upper class tends to hold more power  Physical health o Social class can mean better medical care and insurance  Mental health o Lower class at greater risk for detrimental outcomes of mental health; associated with stress Social Class Mobility  Two kinds: o Intra-generational: your social Class location is different later in your adult life than earlier in your adult life o Inter-generational: your social Class location is different than your parents Inequality and Poverty  Closely linked, but two separate concepts  Inequality - gap between the most and the least  Poverty - defining the bottom of the distribution Defining poverty  Poverty is said to exist when people lack the means to satisfy their basic needs  Two ways to measure poverty o Subjective - feeling poor compared to others o Objective - establishing a minimally acceptable level of income o Poverty Threshold Who are the poor?  Women, urban, children, minority


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