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Reading for 10/17

by: Brenna Eisenberg

Reading for 10/17 PSY 313

Brenna Eisenberg
GPA 3.535

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Chapter 6 notes for 10/17.
Intro. To Research Methodology
B. Seymour
Class Notes
Psychology, Research Methodologies, External Validity, Internal Validity, Science, textbook notes, notes
25 ?




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This 1 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brenna Eisenberg on Sunday October 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 313 at Syracuse University taught by B. Seymour in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Intro. To Research Methodology in Psychology (PSYC) at Syracuse University.

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Date Created: 10/16/16
Reading 10/17 Validity Saturday, October 15, 2016:50 PM • Did the study measure what it was intended to measure? How well? • How accurate are the conclusions? • External validity: the extent to which the results can hold true outside of the specific study ○ Can the results be generalized? ○ Would you get the same results in differentconditions? ○ Threats to external validity- factors that limit the ability to generalize the results of a study ○ Types of generalization  Generalizationfrom a sample to the population-the sample needs to be representative of the population  Generalizationfrom one research study to another  Generalizationfrom a research study to the real world • Internal validity: was there a cause and effect relationship? ○ Were changes in one variable followed by changes in the other variables? ○ No other variables can provide an alternate explanation ○ Allows only one explanation for the results ○ Threat to internalvalidity: any factor that allows for an alternative explanation • It is almost impossible to eliminate every threat to validity • Threats to external validity: ○ Generalizingacross participants/subjects  Selection bias- the sampling procedure favors the selection of some people over others  Volunteer bias- volunteers arent perfectly representative of the population  Cross-species generalizations-when a study is conducted with nonhumans,are the results really applicable to humans? ○ Generalizingacross features of a study:  Novelty effect- individuals may respond differentlythan they would in the real world  Multiple treatment interference-participating in one condition may have an effect that carries into the next treatment.Ex- fatigue, practice  Experimenter characteristics- such as personality, age, gender, etc. ○ Generalizingacross features of the measures:  Sensitization-the pretest may sensitize the participants so that they become more aware of their attitudes/behavior  Generality across response measures- variables can be defined and measured in many different ways. Ex- fear  Time of measurement-the effect of the treatment may change with time • Threats to internal validity: ○ Extraneous variables- additionalvariables in research study that are not directly investigated ○ Confoundingvariables- an extraneous variable that changes systematically along with the two variables being studied. Usually can provide an alternate explanation for the relationship between the two variables ○ The only difference between treatment conditionsshould be the single variable that was used to define the conditions ○ Environmentalvariables ○ Individual differences- personal characteristics that differ from one person to another ○ Assignment bias ○ Time related variables: same group of participants,their scores are compared over time. During the time between the conditions, the participantscan be influenced by other factors. Ex- fatigue • Balancing internal and external validity: ○ High internal validity means minimizing confoundingvariables, must tightly control the experiment. This creates an artificial environment that affect the results ○ High external validity means that the research environment closely resembles the real world • Artifacts- an external factor that may influence or distort measurements, threatens internal and external validity ○ Experimenter bias- experimenter'sexpectations or beliefs of the outcome influence the findings of the study. Single blind and doubleblind studies minimize experimenter bias. • Exaggerated variables- researchers tend to exaggerate the differences between conditions in a study Reading 1017 Page 1


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