Music 302 Week 8
Music 302 Week 8 Mus 302
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Clarissa Notetaker on Sunday October 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Mus 302 at Humboldt State University taught by H. Kaufman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Music in World Culture in Music at Humboldt State University.
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Date Created: 10/16/16
Week 8 Music 302 Music in World Culture India Background -Over a billion people, a third of the size of the U.S. -Shares border with China -Impassable Himalayas in the Northeast -North: Hindustani South: Karnatak Start of Indian music -1500 BCE Aryans established: nomadic horsemen who came to India from Iran and Iraq Vedic religion (basis of Hinduism) Sacred texts: vedas Social hierarchy: varnas -1398 CE Muslim invasion Classical music divided into two styles: 1. Hindustani: hybrid 2. Karnatak: pure Hindu Language -Hindi: most popular (used in the home), from Sanskrit -English: common, colonized language used in business Religion -Mainly Hindu, some Buddhist Vedas -'Veda': knowledge -Sanskrit religious scriptures (like the Bible) -Orally handed down -Oldest sacred Hindu texts -Four elements: 1. Sacred hymns 2. Poems describing gods, nature 3. Rituals 4. Blessings -All sung in a certain pitch Varnas -'Varna': color/quality of human nature -Caste categories, class system 1. Brahmans 2. Kshatriyas 3. Vaishyas 4. Shudras -Based around Krishna, a divinity personified as a giant -Body parts represent the highest to lowest classes Mouth: Brahmans (teachers, high priests) -entrusted with supernatural and intellectual matters -ensure correct transmission of vedic hymns -chief of all created beings -most rights, privileges, and honor Arms: Kshatriyas (warriors, rulers) Thighs: Vaishyas (traders, merchants, farmers) Feet: Shudras (laborers, peasants) -Today there are also the Dalits ('untouchables') who are below the caste system and deal with death and garbage Raas -Secular definition: emotional experience evoked by music, poetry, or drama for players/artists and consumers power in art and music -Religious definition: connection to god Musical Elements -Raga/Ragam (controls pitch) 1. Collection of pitches 2. Set of rules for organizing pitches 3. Set of associations as they relate to Rasa (emotion) associated with a specific time associated with a specific period associated with specific feelings Ornamentation -Ornaments or embellishments added to decorate a musical line or melody -Integral to Indian melody in the absence of harmony--only melody and rhythm in Indian music Rhythm -Tala (strike with palm)/Talam: both meter -Time cycle that's fixed -Kept by clapping/hand motions -Matra: beat ranges from only 3 to 108; 6-16 most common -Sum: first beat of the cycle -Bol: word/syllable; correlates to percussion, chanted Musical Elements -Keeping tala for tintal (16 matras) -Keeping tala for rupaktal (7 matras) -Keeping tala for dadratal (6 matras) Karnatak Instruments Voice -supplies melody Violin -pre-composed material with a soloist -accompaniment Tambura -4-5 string lute -long neck -creates nonpulsed drone -played sitting Mridangam -double headed membranophone Vene -bamboo transverse flute -8 holes -supplies the melody -substituted for voice -uses frequent ornamentation Hindustani Instruments Sitar -plucked and strummed lute -7 strings -movable frets -supplies melody and rhythm Tambura -same as Karnatak Tabla -pair of single headed membranophones -supply the rhythm -strikes have corresponding syllables or 'bols' -Bayan (metal shell) Dahina (wood shell)
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