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TXC 008: Week 4 Notes

by: Demi Chang

TXC 008: Week 4 Notes TXC 008

Demi Chang

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Hello Everyone, Week 4 Notes are here! :) Best, Demi
The Textile and Apparel Industries
Elizabeth Mukiibi
Class Notes
Clothing, Textiles, business, merchandising, apparel, Marketing, esign, Fashion, Culture
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Demi Chang on Sunday October 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to TXC 008 at University of California - Davis taught by Elizabeth Mukiibi in Fall 2017. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see The Textile and Apparel Industries in Textiles & Clothing at University of California - Davis.

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Date Created: 10/16/16
TXC 008: Week 4 Notes I. Structure of the Textile Industry A. Textiles 1. Textiles​: Any product made from fibers. 2. Textile Production​: Includes fiber processing, yarn spinning, fabric production, and finishing. B. Fibers 1. Fibers​: Basic unit used to make fabrics. 2. Natural Fibers​: Natural protein fibers of animal origin (e.g., wool, cashmere, silk) or natural cellulose fibers of plant origin (e.g., cotton, flax, jute, sisal). Leather and fur are also natural fibers. 3. Manufactured Fibers​: Chemicals are used to mimic natural fibers (e.g., rayon, nylon, acrylic, acetate, olefin, spandex, and polyester). Also includes mineral based fibers (e.g., metallic and glass). C. Yarns 1. Yarns​: Collection of fibers or filaments laid or twisted together to create a continuous strand. 2. Spun Yarns:​ ​ Yarns made from ​shorter ​staple fibers. 3. Filaments​ are made from ​longer​ continuous fibers. D. Fabric Construction & Finishing 1. Fabric Construction:​ Methods use to make fabrics. 2. ​Fabric Finishing​: Anything done to fiber, yarn, or fabric before or after weaving or knitting to change appearance, hand, or performance. It involves bleaching, shearing, brushing, embossing, and dyeing. 3. ​Greige Goods​: Unfinished fabrics and unfinished goods. Requires fabric finishing to turn it from a raw to unfinished product. E. Textile Industry ​ 1. Textile Industry: ​$61 billion industry ​made of ​four processes​: fiber processing, yarn spinning, fabric production and fabric finishing. 2. ​Textile Mills:​ ​Company owning textile machinery and produces braided, knitted, woven, or any other type of fabric/cloth. They ​focus on fabric construction (knitting and weaving, non-woven fabrics like lace). 3. ​Vertically Integrated Companies carry out all four processes​ while others that are only partially integrated. (e.g., Pendleton woolen Mills). 4. ​Textile Converters:​ ​ Specializes in finished fabrics. Converts can work close to the time of need because they produce fabrics only when ordered by apparel manufacturers. F. ​ Natural Fiber Processing 1. Cotton​: Largest production of fibers worldwide. U.S. produces 13.1 million 480 lb. bale last year, followed by wool. Imported fibers include linen and silk. ​ a) Cotton Production Leader: ​China​ is the ​largest producer of cotton​ the world. ​ b) ​ Cotton Abilities: Absorbs/dries quickly, the most widely used of all natural fibers, and good for warm weather clothing. ​ c) ​ Cotton Origins: Plant grown in the South and minimally in California. Grows using a lot of chemical pesticides, fertilizers, and water. Therefore, it is not very good for the environment. 2. ​Wool​: Derived from the fleece of goats, sheep, llamas, and alpacas. They shear the sheep in the spring, scour the wool to remove grease and impurities, then fibers are blended to achieve uniform color fibers, then carded for strength. ​ a)​ Wool Abilities: Absorbs/dries more slowly than cotton. Natural crimping lends itself to insulating against the cold. 3. ​Silk:​ Luxurious Feel and breathable quality, can be worn year round. 4. ​Linen​: Absorbs and dries quickly like cotton, but wrinkles and is harder to iron than cotton. 5. ​Ramie​: Linen-like fabric that is expensive and well suited for warm weather apparel. 6. ​Hemp​: Formerly used for agricultural tools like rope, canvas, and lamp oil, it is now used for garments and bed linens. G. ​Advertising ​ 1. Advertising Importance: For both natural and manufactured fibers, advertising is used to persuade manufacturers to choose a fabric. ​Manufactured fiber producers campaigns more heavily​ than natural fiber producers. Advertising with manufacturers benefit both primary and secondary industries. a) Dupont used advertising for swimwear to promote Lycra. b) Cotton Incorporated focuses on its products and its economic importance. H. Manufactured Fiber Processing ​ 1. U.S. Manufactured Fiber Industry: Largest in the world, requiring high capital investment by large chemical companies like Du Pont and Allied Signal. Investments are often forwarded towards research. ​ 2. Manufactured Fiber Research: Research involves converting raw materials into chemical compounds and polymerization (i.e., seeing which fabrics are resistant to bacteria, studying finishings’ resistance to water, etc.). Polymers are then melted/extruded from filaments and stretched to introduce strength, flexibility, elasticity, and pliability to the yarn. I. ​Marketing Natural Fibers 1. Natural fibers are sold globally​ with ​prices determined by supply and demand​. Fibers are sold to mills to produce yarn and fabric. Furs are sold at public auction. 2. ​Trade Associations:​ Created to promote natural fibers, which were facing competition. It is supported by producers (Cotton Incorporated, American Wool Council, Wool Bureau, Camel Hair Manufacturers Institute, etc.) ​ a) Functions of Trade Associations: Carry out research in textile testing, trend forecasting, product care, and registering trademarks. b) ​ATMI​ ​(American Textile Manufacturers Institute​): Covers natural/manufactured fibers and provides international trade information as well. J.Marketing Manufactured Fibers 1. In Vertically Integrated Companies, ​manufactured fibers’ prices are set by cost of developing/producing the fiber​. ​ 2. Commodity vs. Trade Name Fibers: Commodity fibers are ​sold without a brand name​. Brand name or Trade name distinguishes one fiber from another in the generic family. (e.g.., Lycra Spandex fiber (DuPont) and Acrilan acrylic fiber (Monsanto). ​ 3. Licensed or Controlled Brand Name: Program sets minimum standards of fabric performance for trademarked fibers. K. ​ iber Distribution 1. As Unbranded​: No restrictions on end use, nor implied performance 2. ​As Branded or Trademarked​: Fiber quality guaranteed, end use of fiber (fabric) not. 3. ​Under Licensing Agreement​: The ​fiber trademark ​can only be used if the manufacturers’ fabrics of other end products mass tests set up by the fiber producer. ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​


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