Intro to Psychology, Week 8
Intro to Psychology, Week 8 92963
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This 19 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hanou Amouzou on Sunday October 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 92963 at Georgia State University taught by Mr. Brian Collins in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Social Science at Georgia State University.
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Date Created: 10/16/16
Chapter 5: Sex, Gender, and Sexuality In our cultures today, the ideas of gender have changed drastically. Throughout this chapter, we will explore the characteristics of sex and gender and be able to differentiate them. We will also look at some of the ways nature and nurture interact to form our unique gender identities. We will go in depth as to how male and female are alike and how they are different from a biological standpoint and psychological perspective. Sex, from a psychological standpoint, is the biological influenced characteristics by which define males and females Gender, from a psychological perspective, is our culture’s expectations about what it means to be men and women. It serves as a product of the interplay among our biological dispositions, our development experiences, environments and our current situations. DIFFERENCES ON AVERAGE BETWEEN MALES AND FEMALES Men are times more likely to die by suicide o to develop alcohol use disorder Men are more likely to have childhood diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder, colordeficient vision, or ADHD Men are more at risk for antisocial personality disorder Women enter puberty sooner and live about 5 years longer Women express emotions freely Women have twice the risk of developing depression and 10 times the risk of developing an eating disorder Aggression: Any physical or verbal behavior intended to harm someone physically or emotionally o In regards to romantic relationships, men and women are roughly equal o Men commit far more often than women when it comes to extreme violent behavior Relational aggression: An act of aggression (physical or verbal) intended to harm a person’s relationship or social standing o Women commit slightly more often than men SOCIAL POWER Group leadership: More likely assigned to males Salaries Higher salaries paid in traditionally male occupations Elections Women less successful than men World governing bodies: 78% of seats held by males in 2015 Interaction styl Men more often offer opinions; women more often offer support Everyday behavior: Men tend talk assertively, interrupt, initiate touches, and stare, while also tending to smile and apologize less than women In reference to social connectedness: Boys and men are often independent while girls and women are often interdependent Men tend to connect perception with action while women tend to improve social relationships Men often prefer working with things while women prefer working with others Men are often driven by money and status while women often opt. for fewer work hours and tend to have greater responsibility for family obligations Women more often support others; they “tend and befriend” Gender gap subsides by age 50 Biology does not DICTATE gender, but it can influence it 2 ways: Genetic: males and females have differing sex chromosomes Physiologically: males and females have differing concentrations of sex hormones, which trigger other anatomical differences Prenatal Sexual Development Contribution to 23 chromosome pair: The mother has X chromosome and the father serves as a X(Girl) or Y(boy) chromosome th Around 7 week: Y chromosome prompts testes to develop and produce testosterone Between 4 and 5 month: Sex hormones in fetal brain support female and male wiring X chromosome are sex chromosome that are found both in males and females Y chromosome are sex chromosome found only in males Testosterone are found in both males and females but females have less and more of estrogen. Adolescent Sexual Development During adolescence, boys and girls enter puberty and mature sexually Puberty is the period of sexual maturation, during which a person become capable of reproducing Surge of hormones triggers a 2year period of rapid physical development Primary and secondary sex characteristics develop dramatically Primary sex characteristics: Body structures such as ovaries, testes and external genitalia that make sexual reproduction possible Secondary sex characteristics: No reproductive sexual traits, such as female breasts and hips, male voice quality, and body hair Spermarche: First ejaculation Menarche: First menstrual period *** Through childhood, boys and girls take on similarity in height, but at puberty, girls surge ahead briefly, but then boys overtake them at about age 14. *** How do gender roles and gender identity differ? A role is a set of expectations (norms) about a social position. A gender role is set of expected behaviors, attitudes, and traits for males or for females Gender identity is our personal sense of being male, female, or some combination of the two Social learning theory: Proposes social behavior is learned by observing and imitating others’ genderlinked behavior and by being rewarded or punished Gender typing: The acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role. It varies from child to child, which indicates there’s more to gender typing than solely observation and imitation. How Do We Learn Gender? Learning to be male or female involves feeling AND thinking o Formation of schemas helps children make sense of our world o Gender schemas form early in life and organize experiences of malefemale characteristics o Gender expression can be seen as children drop hints in their language, clothing, interests and possessions Androgyny: Displaying both traditional masculine and feminine psychological characteristics Transgender: Umbrella term describing people whose gender identity or expression differs from that associated with their birth sex Asexuality is having no sexual attraction to others ***Sex hormones are one of the forces that drive sexual behavior*** Testosterone are the most important male sex hormone. In both males and females, but the additional testosterone in males stimulates growth of the male sex organs during fetal period, and development of male sex characteristics during puberty Estrogens sex hormones, such as estradiol, are secreted in greater amounts by females than by males and contribute to female sex characteristics Three points in which large hormonal surges or declines are as followed: o Pubertal stage triggering development of sex characteristics and sexual interest o Women experiencing menopause later in life, while men are more gradually changing o Surgery and drugs can also cause hormonal shifts The Sexual response cycle identifies 4 stages of sexual responding as identified by William Masters and Virginia Johnson: Excitement: The genital areas become engorged with blood, causing a woman’s clitoris and a man’s penis to swell. Plateau: Excitement peaks as breathing, pulse and blood pressure rates continue to increase. Orgasm: Muscle contractions appear all over the body, with the increases in breathing, pulse and blood pressure rates. Resolution: The body gradually returns to its unaroused state, both men and women enters a Refractory Period, in which the male lasts from a few minutes to a day or more, during while they are incapable of another orgasm. In the cases of women, there’s a much shorter refractory period in which she can have more orgasms if so choose. Sexual dysfunctions can be applied to several factors: Impair sexual arousal or functioning Often involve sexual motivation, especially sexual motivation and arousal Include erectile disorder and premature ejaculation from males Include female orgasmic disorder and female sexual interest/ arousal disorder (females) Sometimes involve paraphilias (sexual desire directed in unusual ways) Female orgasmic disorder is distress due to infrequently or never experiencing orgasm Paraphilias is sexual arousal from fantasies, behaviors, or urges involving nonhuman objects, the suffering of self or others, and/or nonconsenting persons. It includes necrophilia, exhibitionism, and pedophilia Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI) also called sexually transmitted disease (STD). Every day, more than 1 million people worldwide acquire an STI AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is lifethreatening, sexually transmitted infection caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It depletes immune system and leaves person vulnerable to infections External stimuli are what people may find sexual arousal from erotic materials either pleasing or disturbing; repeated exposure often habituates emotional response Imagined stimuli are sexual desire and arousal that can be imagined; our brain has been said to be our most important sex organ. Examples may be fantasies or imaginative sexual desires WHAT FACTORS INFLUENCE TEENAGERS’ SEXUAL BEHAVIOR AND USE OF CONTRACEPTIVES? Environment factors that influence a higher teen pregnancy rate are as followed: Minimal discussion about birth control Alcohol use Guilt related to sexual activity Mass media norms of unprotected promiscuity; media help write the social scripts that affect our perceptions and actions Factors that predict sexual restraint: High intelligence Religious engagement Father presence Participation in service learning programs Sexual orientation is our enduring sexual attraction towards members of one’s own sex (homosexual orientation), the other sex (heterosexual orientation), or both sexes (bisexual orientation) Samesex attraction in other species are same sex behavior has been observed in several hundred species. Gaystraight brain differences are one hypothalamic cell cluster is smaller in women and gay men than in straight men Genetic influences are shared sexual orientation is higher among identical twins than among fraternal twins. Prenatal influences are altered prenatal hormone exposure that may lead to homosexuality in humans and other animals CHAPTER 7: LEARNING WHAT WAS BEHAVIORISM’S VIEW OF LEARNING? Ivan Pavlov’s early 20 century experiments are psychology’s most famous research. Classical conditioning: Type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events. Behaviorism o Psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes o Most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not with (2) Neutral stimulus (NS): In classical conditioning, a stimulus that elicits no response before conditioning Unconditioned response (UR): In classical conditioning, an unlearned, naturally occurring response (such as salivation) to an unconditioned stimulus (US) (such as food in the mouth) Unconditioned stimulus (US): In classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionallynaturally and automatically—triggers an unconditioned response (UR) Conditioned response (CR): In classical conditioning, a learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus (CS) Conditioned stimulus (CS): In classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus, that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus (US), comes to trigger a conditioned response (CR) Generalization: Tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses o Palvov demonstrated generalization by attaching miniature vibrators to various parts of a dog’s body Discrimination: Learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus (which predicts the US) and other irrelevant stimuli WHAT IS OPERANT CONDITIONING? Operant conditioning is a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforce or diminished if followed by a punisher Actions followed by reinforcers increase; those followed by punishment decrease Operant behavior is a behavior that operates on the environment to produce rewarding or punishing stimuli. (In contrast, classical conditioning involves respondent behaviorautomatic responses to a stimulus) 1. Behavior operates on the environment to produce rewarding or punishing stimuli 2. Organisms associate their own actions with consequences 3. Actions followed by reinforcement increase; those followed by punishments often decrease Reinforcement: Any event that strengthens the behavior it follows Shaping: Gradually guiding behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior With this method of successive approximations, responses that are ever closer to the final desired behavior are rewarded, and all other responses are ignored Positive Reinforcement: Increases behaviors by presenting positive reinforcers. A positive reinforcers is any stimulus that, when resented after a response, strengthens the response o Ex: Pet a dog that comes when you call it; pay the person who paints your house Negative Reinforcement: Increases behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli. A negative reinforcer is any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response. NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT IS NOT PUNISHMENT o Ex: Take a painkiller to end pain; fasten seat belt to end loud beeping Operant Conditioning: Types of Reinforcers Immediate: Occurs immediately after a behavior Delayed: Involves time delay between desired response of and delivery of reward Reinforcement Schedules Fixedratio schedule Reinforcing a response only after a specified number of responses Take attendance, does not take attendance, takes attendance, does not take attendance, takes attendance, does not take attendance. For example, a fixedratio schedule might be delivery a reward for every 5 response or imagining that you are training a lab rat to press button in order to receive food pellet Variableratio schedule Reinforcing a response after an unpredictable number of responses Takes attendance, takes attendance, does not take attendance, takes attendance, does not take attendance, does not take attendance (random) Ex: Gambling, slot machines, lottery games, and sales bonuses Fixedinterval schedule Reinforcing a response only after a specified time has elapsed Paycheck at work Variableinterval schedule Reinforcing a response at unpredictable time intervals Checking Facebook or your email Ex: Your employer checking your work or pop quizzes Acquisition Initial stage, when one links a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus begins triggering the conditioned responses Ex: The dog learns to salivate to the sound of the bell Extinction Diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs in classical conditioning when an unconditioned stimulus (US) does not follow a conditioned stimulus (CS) Ex: When the dog doesn’t hear the bell anymore when he gets food, the dog may hear the bell again and not salivate Spontaneous Recovery Reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response Ex: The dog salivates to the sound of the bell after forgetting it even though it is not reinforced. Chapter 6: Sensation and Perception Sensation refers to the process of sensing our environment through touch, taste, sight, sound, and smell. Perception is the way we interpret these sensations and therefore make sense of everything around us. Topdown processing: Creates meaning from this sensory input by drawing on our experience and expectations. Bottomup processing: Analysis that begins with the sensory receptors and works up to the brain’s integration of sensory information 3 steps that are basic to all our sensory systems are as followed: Receive sensory stimulation, often using specialized receptor cells Transform that stimulation into neural impulses Deliver the neural information to our brain Transduction: The process of converting one form of energy into another that our brain can use. In sensation, it is the transforming of stimulus energies such as sights, sounds, and smells, into neural impulses our brain can interpret. Differentiating between absolute thresholds and difference thresholds and their effect. Absolute thresholds German scientist and philosopher Gustav Fechner (18011887) studied our awareness of these faint stimuli The minimum stimulation necessary to detect a particular light, sound, pressure, taste, or odor 50% of the time Difference thresholds The minimum difference a person can detect between any two stimuli half the time For ex. If we listen to our music at 40 decibels, we might detect an added 5 decibels. But if we increase the volume to 110 decibels, we probably won’t detect a 5decibel change Ernst Weber (1800s) described this with a principle so simple and widely applicable known as the Weber’s Law. This law states that for an average person to perceive a difference, two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage (not a constant amount). Signal detection theory: predicts when we will detect weak signals (measured as our ratio of “hits” to “false alarms” o Individual thresholds vary depending on the strength of the signal and also on our experience, expectations, motivation and alertness Subliminal Stimulation are considered to be stimuli you cannot consciously detect 50% of the timebelow your absolute threshold Subliminal sensation exists, but such sensations are too fleeting to enable exploitation with subliminal messages Subliminal persuasion may produce a fleeting and subtle but not powerful or enduring effect on behavior Priming: Activating, often unconsciously, associations in our mind, thus setting us up to perceive, remember, or respond to objects or events in certain ways When we are constantly exposed to an unchanging stimulus, we typically become less aware of it because our nerve cells fire less frequently, this process is called Sensory Adaptation. o Aids focus by reducing background chatter o Influences how the world is perceived in a personally useful way o Is diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation o Ex: Entering your neighbors’ living room, you smell a musty odor. You wonder how they endure it, but within minutes you no longer notice the smell. o Sensory adaptation even influences how we perceive emotions as well. ***The point to remember: We perceive the world not exactly as it is, but as it is useful for us to perceive it*** Perceptual Set: A set of mental tendencies and assumptions that affects, top down, what we hear, taste, feel and see Perceptions are also influenced, topdown, by our motivation and emotions Context effects: A given stimulus may trigger different perceptions because of the immediate context Motivation and Emotion: Perceptions are also influenced by our motivation and emotions Walking destinations look farther away when fatigued Slopes look steeper when wearing a heavy backpack (or after listening to sad, heavy classical music) Wavelength: Distance from the peak of one light wave or sound wave to the peak of the next. Intensity: Amount of energy in a light wave or sound wave, which influences what we perceive as brightness or loudness. It is determined by the wave’s amplitude (height) Hue: Dimension of color that is determined by the wavelength of light what we perceive as the color names blue, green, and so forth. Amplitude describes the height from peak to trough (top to bottom) Wavelength: Distance from one wave peak to the next Hue: Color experienced Amplitude: Height Intensity: Amount of contained energy; influences brightness The Eye Cornea: portion of the eye through which light passes (to the pupil and lens) and is bent to help provide focus Pupil: a small adjustable opening through which the light then passes Iris: a colored muscle surrounding the pupil that controls its size Lens: focuses incoming light rays onto an image on the retina on the eyeball’s sensitive inner surface After entering the eye and being focused by a lens, light energy particles strike the eye’s inner surface, the retina. The Retina Retina contains receptors rods and cones Rods specializes black, white, and gray; sensitive to movement; necessary for peripheral and twilight vision. Cones focuses near the center of the retina; function in daylight or welllit conditions; detect fine detail and color Retina has layers of neurons that begin the processing of visual information Accommodation The process by which the eye’s lens changes shape to focus near or far objects on the retina Retinal Processing Lightenergy particles trigger chemical reactions in receptor cells, rods and cones, and outer layer of cells of the retina at the back of the eye Chemical reaction in turn activates bipolar cells Bipolar cells then activate the ganglion cells, whose combined axons form the optic nerve, which transmits the neural impulses from the eye to the brain Ganglion axons forming the optic nerve run to the thalamus, where they synapse with neurons that run to the visual cortex Optic nerve: carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain Blind spot: the point at which the optic nerve leaves the eye, creating a “blind” spot because no receptor cells are located here Fovea: the central focal point in the retina, around which the eyes cones cluster Color processing is a twostage process: According to YoungHelmholtz trichromatic theory, the retina has 3 types of color receptors. Each type is sensitive to one of three colors: red, green, or blue Cones’ responses are then processed by opponentprocess cells, as Hering’s opponentprocess theory proposed. Feature detectors: Specialized nerve cells in the brain that respond to specific features of the stimulus, such as shape, angle or movement Hubel and Wiesel Showed brain’s computing system deconstructs and then reassembles visual images Found specialized occipital lobe neuron cells (feature detectors) receive information from ganglion cells and pass it to supercell clusters Looking at faces, houses, and chairs activates different brain areas in this rightfacing brain Parallel Procession is the brain’s ability to do many things at once A visual scene is first divided into subdimensions Perceptions are constructed by integrating separate but parallel subdimensions Gestalt: An organized while. Gestalt psychologists propose principles used to organize sensations into meaningful wholes. In perception, the whole may exceed the sum of its parts. We tend to filter incoming information and construct perceptions. People like us tend to organize pieces of information into an organized whole, or Gestalt Figureground: The organization of the visual field into objects (the figures) that stand out from their surrounding (the ground) Grouping is the perceptual tendency to organize stimuli into coherent groups: Proximity: Grouping nearby figures together Continuity: Perceiving smooth, continuous patters, rather than discontinuous ones Closure: Filling in gaps to create a complete, whole object Depth perception represents ability to see objects in three dimensions, although the images that strike the retina are two dimensional. It allows us to judge distance and is present, at least in part, at birth in humans and other animals Eleanor Gibson and Richard Walk (1960) test of early 3D perception with infants to see or determine if they can perceive depth at an early age. Sound Waves: From the environment into the brain Sound waves compress and express air molecules Ear detect these brief pressure changes Some of the characteristics that we hear as sound are as followed: Audition, amplitude, length (frequency and pitch), and sound Low frequency= long wavelength=low pitch Hearing: Decoding sound waves 1. Sound waves strike the ear drum, causing it to vibrate 2. Tiny bones in the middle ear pick up the vibrations and transmit them to the cochlea, a coiled, fluidfilled tube in the inner ear 3. Ripples in the fluid of the cochlea bend the hair cells lining the surface, which trigger impulses in nerve cells 4. Axons from these nerve cells transmit a signal to the auditory cortex HOW DO WE SENSE TOUCH? Sense of touch is actually a mix of 4 distinct skin sense o Pressure o Warmth o Cold o Pain Gatecontrol theory states that the spinal cord contains a neurological “gate” that blocks pain signals or allows them to pass on to the brain Like touch, taste o Involves several basic sensations o Can be influenced by learning expectations, and perceptual bias o Has survival function ***Smell + texture + taste = flavor*** Sweet: indicates energy source Salty: indicates sodium essential to physiological processes Sour: indicates potential toxic acid Bitter: indicates potential poisons Umami: indicates proteins to grow and repair tissues THE SENSE OF SMELL Like taste, smell is a chemical sense. Experience of smell (olfaction) Information from the taste buds travels to an area between the frontal and temporal lobes of the brain It registers in an area not far from where the brain receives information from our sense of smell, which interacts with taste VISION Source: light waves striking the eye Receptors: rods and cones in the retina Key Brain Areas: occipital lobes HEARING Source: sound waves striking the outer ear Receptors: Cochlear hair cells in the inner ear Key Brain Areas: temporal lobes TOUCH Source: pressure, warmth, cold Receptors: receptors, most in the skin, detect pressure, warmth, cold and pain Key Brain Areas: somatosensory cortex TASTE Source: chemical molecules in the mouth Receptors: basic tongue receptors for sweet, sour, salty, bitter, and umami Key Brain Areas: Frontal temporal lobe border SMELL Source: chemical molecules breathed in through the nose Receptors: millions of receptors at top of nasal cavity Key Brain Areas: olfactory bulb BODY POSITIONKINESTHESIA Source: any change in position of a body part, interacting with vision Receptors: kinesthetic sensors in joints, tendons, and muscles Key Brain Areas: Cerebellum BODY MOVEMENTVESTIBULAR SENSE Source: movement of fluids in the inner ear caused by head/body movement Receptors: hairlike receptors in the ear semicircular canals and vestibular sacs Key Brain Areas: Cerebellum
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