Arch History Week 8 Notes
Arch History Week 8 Notes ARCH 211
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katie Mayes on Sunday October 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ARCH 211 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Dr. Gregor Kalas in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see History of Arch in Architecture at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
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Date Created: 10/16/16
1 Architecture History October 10, 2016 Buddhist Architecture Mathura, India - Date: Second C. CE - Buddha Seated on Lion Throne Siddhartha Gautama as the Historical Buddha Gandhara, Pakistan - Meditating Buddha - Emphasize the idea of taking responsibility for our own states of mind o Be at peace with ourselves – transform the mind Lion Capital - Ruler: Ashoka - Location: Sarnath o Where the historical Buddha (Siddartha Gautama) Preached o Buddhism Enlightened one - Traditionally, the lion is associated with regality, Strength, and power - Buddha, was traditionally known as the royal prince Sanchi, India - Great Stupa 2 - Torana or Gateway - Buddhism, 2 ndCentury CE - Discovered in 1818 - Begun by the Mauryan Emperor Ashoka - Solid throughout, enclosed by massive stone railing Pierced by four gateways o Adorned with elaborate carvings depicting Life of Buddha - Consists of a base bearing a hemispherical dome, Symbolizing the dome of heaven enclosing the earth - Proud icon of Sanchi - Surrounded by 4 gateways called Toranas o Representing love, trust, courage, and peace Karle, India - Interior of Chaitya Hall o Largest of cave temples o Cut off of a solid rock o Octagonal pillars o Each column rests in a water jar Some have capitals on the top o The hall was used for prayers and meetings o Well preserved temple today o Shunga dynasy after the fall of Mauryan Emperor Ajanta, India - Buddhist Caves - Cave 19 o Chaitya Hall 3 - Buddhist religious art - The caves are cut into the face of a mountain They form a horseshoe shape around the Wangorah River - Rock cut temple o Traditional artistic practice - Ajanta consists of 30 caves, each dedicated to Buddha - Each cave has sculpture, wall murals, and ceiling Paintings - The caves are numbered based on location Buddhist Temple of Borobudur - Island of Java in Indonesia - Built in three teirs o Pyramidal base w/ five concentric square Terraces o A trunk of a cone with three circular platforms o At the top, a monumental Stupa - Around the circular platforms are 72 openwork Stupas, each containing a statue of the Buddha - One of the greatest Buddhist monuments in the world - Built during the reign of the Syailendra Dynasty - The vertical division of the temple into base, body, and Superstructure perfectly accords with the conception Of Universe in Buddhist cosmology Foguang si Monastery Pagoda - Yingxian, China - Liao Dynasty - Based on a painting of Wutai Mountain o The mountain is one of five sacred Buddhist Mountains in China 4 - Built on multiple levels up a hillside valley - Under the reign of Emperor Xiaowen of Northern Wei Dynasty Chinese Raised Beam Construction - Beam - Strut - Purlin - Rafter - Eaves - Cantilevers Guan Yin Pavilion - Dulesi or Dule Monastery in Jixian - Liao Dynasty 947-1125 - Oldest surviving building - Two timber-frame structures - Designed and constructed by local architects and Craftsmen - 3-story timber structure 5 - half-hipped, half gabled roofs - Inside there’s a clay statue of Guanyin with the heads Of 10 small Buddhas Shanmen or Gateway - Dulesi or Dule Monastery o In Jixian - Single-story building - 10 m tall - 3 single-eaves Wudian roofs Architecture History October 12, 2016 Japanese Architecture Ryoan-ji - Kyoto, Japan - 1480 - Zen Monastery - Garden not ascribed to one designer - Belief that Soami, an artist of the age made the garden - Main building was burned in 1789 - Originally a Fujiwara family estate - Dry Garden o Consists of a flat, rectangular surface of raked white sand with fifteen rocks scattered 15 Rocks denotes completeness o Elimination of trees and plants and overall simplicity represents art o 30x70 ft o South side of temple - Behind the simple temple is a stone washbasin called Tsukibai - Shinden style of architecture - Temple o Hojo – Monk’s quarters - There’s a pond leading to a religious shrine Phoenix Hall of the Byodoin - Uii, Japan - 11 Century - Pure Land Buddhism - Originally a country palace for the Fujiwara Clan - Converted to a temple to enshrine Buddha - Originally Shinden-zukuri style - Main apartment called shinden or bed chamber - A place of scenic beauty - It was built in order to create a Land of Happiness o A place where a person goes in the after-life o There’s a Jodo style garden created for this concept - On display inside the temple is the temple bell o Referred to as the sugata no byodin – regarded as one of the three most prized temple bells Ise Shrine - Mie Prefecture - Main Hall - Amaterasu Deity - Shinto Religion - Also known as the Grand Shrine of Ise - Popular place of pilgrimage as well as a tourist attraction - Sacred site due to its forests of sacred Japanese cypress trees o These trees were worshipped in nature without any buildings o The building used some wood from one of the trees as a symbol of maintaining the sacredness within the structure - The shrine consists of two major Shinto sanctuaries, located about 4 miles apart - The main building at each is a hut made of unpainted cypress wood - The Inner Shrine (Naiku) o Dedicated to Amaterasu Omikami, the sun goddess and supreme deity who is considered the ancestor of the imperial family - Outer Shrine (Geku) o Dedicated to Toyouke Okami Goddess of food, agriculture, industry clothing, and shelter She was brought to oversee the offering of sacred food Garden of Tenryuii Temple, Kyoto - Muso Soseki - Zen - Kare Sansui – Dry Cascade - Most important temple in Arashiyama District - Ranked first among city’s five great Zen temples - Built in 1339 - Takauji dedicated the temple to Emperor Go-Daigo - The buildings had 8 major severe fires - Tenryuji’s garden survived the centuries in its original form - The garden has a central pond surrounded by rocks, pine trees, and the Arashiyama mountains Saiho – ji Temple Garden - Kyoto, Japan - Also known as “Kokedera” – Moss Temple - 120 varieties of moss - Religious area - Dry landscape garden - Features paths around a pond - There’s a sacred tea room inside the Garden Architect o Muso Soseki o Dry garden, around 1330 o Zen Buddhism Sen No Rikyu – Tea Master - Tai-an Tearoom - Kyoto, Japan - Tatami Mats Alcove - Born in 1522 - What is today’s Osaka prefecture, as the son of a warehouse owner - By the time he was 19 he had already met the great tea master Takeno Jo-o whose teachings would influence him tremendously throughout his life - He set out to try and introduce the spirit of wabi-sabi into the tea ceremony - The tea ceremony was very sacred and precise Katsura Imperial Palace - Near Kyoto - Influence of Sen no Rikyu - 1620-1640 - Built for the Katsura family – Japan’s imperial family - Often described as the “quintessense of Japanese Taste” - The prince’s son, Toshitada wanted to renovate Katsura into an ideal place to serve tea for ceremonies - Was well known as a retreat for aristocracy back when Kyoto was still known as “Heian Kyo” because of its relaxing peacefulness - House features o Gate with a thatched roof at the entrance o Teahouse called “Shokin Teahouse” o Onrin Temple – teahouse and shrine o Gepparo “Moon-wave-teahouse Best view of the harvest moon