Lecture 13 - Verbal Messages
Lecture 13 - Verbal Messages COMM 1041
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Leslie Ogu on Sunday October 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to COMM 1041 at George Washington University taught by Dona Louise Coultice-Christian in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Interpersonal Communication in Communication at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 10/16/16
Leslie Ogu COMM 1041 10/13/2016 - Verbal Messages Question of the Day What is the dumbest thing you were ever persuaded to do? How? Principles of Verbal Messages 1. Packaged 2. Message in people - not words a. Leads to bypassing: situation where the interpretation of a message between two or more people don’t match 3. Denotative or connotative a. Denotative: objective meaning b. Connotative: emotional meaning attached i. Snarl words: i nducing of negative feelings (exaggerated) ii. Purr words: inducing of positive feelings (exaggerated) 4. Abstraction: words that are very vague or specific a. Ex: dog - more specific - golden retriever - more specific - golden retriever puppy b. Ex: dog - less specific - pet - less specific - animal 5. Very in politeness a. Positive face: to be looked on favorably i. Ex: Letting someone know you like something they did b. Negative face: the desire not to be looked upon i. Ex: Asking a sibling for money without much of a choice 6. Inclusion and Exclusion a. Inclusion: way of speaking that includes others b. Exclusion: way of speaking that excludes others 7. Online a. Familiarize yourself with things like chat rooms before you add your input; don’t advertise; don’t shout; don’t type long messages 8. Onymous / Anonymous a. Onymous: do know who is doing it b. Anonymous: don’t know who is doing it 9. Can deceive a. Can be for good or bad reasons b. Self-enhancement deception: try to make yourself look good c. Selfish deception: lies meant to protect ourselves i. Ex: Cheating on a spouse and lying about it ii. Ex: Taking credit for work you didn’t do d. Antisocial deception: spreading lies to hurt others e. Exaggeration, minimization, substitution, omission, and more, are all lies f. Liars tend to: i. Speak more slowly ii. Give less information iii. Smile less frequently iv. Be less cooperative v. Have excessive movement g. Know the difference truth bias and lie bias i. Tend to believe those we care about or know really well (truth bias) ii. If we don’t like or are suspicious of someone, we tend not to believe them (lie bias) 10.Assertiveness a. I win, you win attitude; not meant to hurt others i. Ex: Debates; Taking control of a group project b. To improve, you: i. Watch others be assertive ii. Watch what you say c. To assert correctly: i. Describe the problem ii. State how it affects you iii. Propose a solution iv. Confirm an understanding 11.Confirm / Reject / Disconfirm a. Disconfirm: d on’t acknowledge someone or their presence b. Reject: disagreeing with an idea c. Confirm: acknowledging someone and their presence 12.Cultural sensitivity a. Cultural Identifiers i. Race and nationality 1. Negro / colored / African American (Person of color) 2. Hispanic (Spanish speaking culture) Latino / Latina a. Latin America 3. Inuk (Preferred to Eskimo) ii. Affectional orientation 1. Gay or lesbian 2. Spouses - 2 wives or 2 husbands iii. Age 1. Older person preferred to elderly or even senior iv. Sex and gender 1. Girl - boy (counterparts and should refer to youth) 2. Transgendered people use the gender with which they identify 3. Transvestites use the gender which their clothing reflects 13.Isms a. Racism: thought that one race is superior to another i. Personal Racism: your negative attitudes towards someone of a particular race ii. Institutional Racism: the systems in place against a race b. Heterosexism: belief that all should be straight and not gay i. Personal Heterosexism: participating in gay bashing ii. Institutional Heterosexism: gay marriage bans and overall hindering those who are gay c. Agism: discriminating someone based on their age i. Personal Agism: speaking slowly because you think old people can’t hear; Not hiring anyone under 30 ii. Institutional Agism: mandatory retirement dates d. Sexism: discriminating based on sex i. Personal Sexism: ii. Institutional Sexism: Using Verbal Messages Effectively ➢ Extensional / Intensional Orientation ○ Intensional: tendency to view people / things as they are labeled ○ Extensional: viewing people / things as themselves first ➢ Avoid Allness ○ Don’t judge the whole based on a part ■ 6 men and an elephant - each thought the part they were touching would determine the animal and each thought it was something different ➢ Avoid Fact-Interference Confusion ○ Interference ■ Any time ■ Beyond observation ■ Made by anyone ■ Probability ■ Not verifiable ○ Facts ■ After observation ■ Limited by observation ■ Made by observer ■ Certainty ■ Verifiable ➢ Avoid Indiscrimination ○ Focus on “groupness” and fail to see “individuality” ➢ Avoid Polarization ○ Faulty either-or ○ Extremes ➢ Avoid static evaluation ○ T.S.Eliot, The Cocktail Party, (text) “What we know of other people is only our memory of the moments during which we knew them. And they have changed since then…at every meeting we are meeting a stranger.”
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