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Week 8 - Anatomy and Pathophysiology I: Lecture Notes

by: Audrey Hernandez

Week 8 - Anatomy and Pathophysiology I: Lecture Notes PHCL 2600

Marketplace > University of Toledo > Biology > PHCL 2600 > Week 8 Anatomy and Pathophysiology I Lecture Notes
Audrey Hernandez
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These notes cover the rest of lectures in regards to the central nervous system as covered in week 8 of lectures.
Human Anatomy and Pathophysiology
Dr. Frederick Williams
Class Notes
Science, Biology, anatomy, Physiology
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Audrey Hernandez on Sunday October 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PHCL 2600 at University of Toledo taught by Dr. Frederick Williams in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Pathophysiology in Biology at University of Toledo.


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Date Created: 10/16/16
Functional Anatomy and Pathophysiology I Dr. Frederick E. Williams Week 8 Lecture Notes Overview of the brain ❖ Brain divisions ➢ Forebrain ■ Cerebral cortex ● Considered the integrating center of incoming information ● Divided into four lobes ◆ Frontal ➢ Section around the forehead ➢ Is the action portion of motor control ➢ Area for reasoning and emotion ◆ Parietal ➢ Section around the top of the head ➢ Has the postcentral gyrus that deals with finer sensory processing as well as discriminating stimuli from one another ➢ Also has the angular gyrus which helps with functions involving the processing of language ◆ Temporal ➢ Area around the temples of the head ➢ Remember it works with auditory stimuli by remembering it is in the ear/temple area of the head ➢ Has the Wernicke’s area ◆ Occipital ➢ Area around the back of the head ➢ Discriminates between the different visual stimuli ● Cerebrum ◆ Consists of 80% of the brain tissue ◆ Consists mostly white matter with spots of gray matter ◆ Responsible for memory and reason as well as sensory and motor areas ◆ Shallow grooves are known as a sulcus while deeper grooves are known as a fissure ➢ The fissure that divides the cerebrum into a left and right hemisphere is known as the longitudinal fissure ➢ Ascending nerve pathways can cross over in the medulla or spinal cord, this allows for the right Functional Anatomy and Pathophysiology I Dr. Frederick E. Williams Week 8 Lecture Notes hemisphere to control the left side of the body and vise versa ■ There is also a crossover at the junction for fine motor control ■ Diencephalon ● Doesn’t need the cortex to relay sensory impulses ● Thalamus ◆ Does a low down crude identification of stimuli ◆ Relays olfactory sensory inputs ● Hypothalamus ◆ Has a key endocrine function with hormone production ◆ Works with homeostasis that monitors body temperature, metabolism, sense of hunger… etc. ■ Limbic System ● A working combination from the hypothalamus, thalamus, as well as sections from the frontal and temporal lobes ● Works with strongly felt emotions ■ Ventricular system ● Cavities filled with cerebral spinal fluid that flows into the cavities of the spinal cord ◆ CSF is colorless and mostly made out water and smaller components of sugar and proteins as well as hormones ◆ Only 15 mL is found in the ventricles ◆ Secreted by the choroid plexus that lines the ventricles ◆ CSF is continuously produced, renewed, and flushed out in a continuous stream, movement being mediated by pressure changes and posture ➢ Midbrain ■ 2 Superior colliculi ● Helps adjust field of vision by moving the head or eyes towards the direction of visual stimulus ● Is the visual reflex center ■ 2 Inferior colliculi ● Helps with responses to auditory stimulus ● Is the auditory response center ■ Cerebral peduncles ● Aids in production of motor activity ➢ Hindbrain Functional Anatomy and Pathophysiology I Dr. Frederick E. Williams Week 8 Lecture Notes ■ Brainstem divisions - brainstem connects higher parts of brain to the spinal cord ● Midbrain ◆ Cranial nerves 3 and 4 exit through here ● Pons ◆ Cranial nerves 5-8 exit through here ● Medulla oblongata ◆ Cranial nerves 8-12 exit through here ● Reticular formation ◆ Receives information from may locations through its many neurons ◆ Works to keep the waking cycle, sleep cycle, and state of awareness in working order ➢ Reticular activating cycle is part of the waking cycle ◆ Has part in cardiovascular and respiratory centers ■ Cerebellum ● There is a central constricted area in the cerebellum called the vermis that “divides” it into the cerebellar hemispheres ◆ Folia of the surface of the cerebellar hemispheres generally consist of gray matter ◆ Inside is white matter that makes the formation known as the arbor vitae ● The three bundles of fibers that act as the connecting bridge between the cerebellum and the brainstem is known as the cerebellar peduncles ● Tentorium cerebelli divides the cerebellum from the cerebrum ● Basic functions of the cerebellum include homeostasis and equilibrium and motor movements of limbs and muscles ➢ Other regions ■ Corpus striatum ● Basal ganglia ◆ Functions include to aid in the motor control of smoother movements ● Internal capsule ❖ Disease and ways of diagnosis ➢ Kinds of diseases ■ Parkinson’s disease Functional Anatomy and Pathophysiology I Dr. Frederick E. Williams Week 8 Lecture Notes ● Idiopathic ● Degeneration of Substantia nigra ● Becoming rigid with tremors at rest ■ Huntington's disease ● Genetic and autosomal ● Loss of GABA neurotransmitters ■ Antipsychotics ■ Tardive dyskinesia ● A disease dealing with handling treatment ■ Hemiballism ● Flinging and jerking movements ● Subthalamic degradation ➢ Three different tests ■ MRI ● Magnetic resonance imaging ● Shows details about the soft tissue, excluding hard tissue like bone. ■ PET ● Positron emission tomography ● Looks more at the uptake and metabolization of injected substances to look at the active parts of the brain ■ EEG ● Electroencephalography ● Measures brain activity or the “brain waves” ◆ Wave types include the alpha, beta, theta, and delta waves. ◆ Alpha waves are resting wakes while still being awake compared to delta waves that show in deep sleep ◆ Beta waves are a type of “thinking” or processing wave while theta waves can be found in adults suffering mental disorders. ❖ Spinal Cord ➢ White matter surrounds the gray matter ➢ Gray matter consists of unmyelinated axons ➢ White matter consists of myelinated axons ➢ Descending fiber tracts ■ Do not synapse on pathway from cortex to motor neurons ➢ Ascending fiber tracts ■ Synapse on pathway from brain to PNS ➢ 31 pairs of peripheral nerves exit from the spinal cord Functional Anatomy and Pathophysiology I Dr. Frederick E. Williams Week 8 Lecture Notes ❖ Reflexes ➢ Motor reflexes are direct synapses without need from brain input ➢ Knee jerk reaction is a very quick reaction dealing with the patellar tendon


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