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Chapter 5 lecture and book notes - COMPLETE!

by: Aleena Watson

Chapter 5 lecture and book notes - COMPLETE! 10400

Marketplace > Portland State University > Biology > 10400 > Chapter 5 lecture and book notes COMPLETE
Aleena Watson

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Chapter 5 was heavy. Here are some notes that will hopefully clear things up. Kept things simple, with an outline style notes so you can easily use this during studying for final. I went over all t...
Mandy Lee Hill Cook
Class Notes
Bio, 211, Biology
25 ?




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Aleena Watson on Sunday October 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 10400 at Portland State University taught by Mandy Lee Hill Cook in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see PRINCIPLES OF BIOLOGY I - BI 211 - 002 in Biology at Portland State University.


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Date Created: 10/16/16
Carbohydrates (means sugar) Carbs are super important to life, important during the chemical revolution which was the starting point of Earth’s history. - Four major macromolecules: proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates and lipids - Monomer for carbs are monosaccharides, which (become) polymers - 2 smallest monosaccharides - aldehyde - ketone - Because of the carbonyl group w/multiple hydroxyl groups and hydrophilic functional groups, this makes carbohydrates polar molecules and easily dissolvable in aq solutions. Structure of Polysaccharides Complex Carbohydrates​ - Sugars who have covalently link to make chains Disaccharide​ - just 2 sugars bonded together Glycosidic linkage​ - Condensation reaction between 2 hydroxyl groups - Glycosidic linkage - holds monomers together at different locations on their monomers Note:​ just like peptide bonds do for proteins and phosphodiester linkages do for nucleic acids! Difference? LOCATION. Peptide bonds and phosphodiester linkages occur between the same location of monomers - Carbon hydrogen and oxygen 1:2:1 - non polar bonds polar covalent bonds - Mono & disaccharides​ (glucose, lactose) lecture notes - short term storage of energy - Carbonyl group (C=O) aldehyde or ketone - LOCATION MATTERS (of bonds) - Tri, pen, hex-ose - Hydroxyl groups (-OH) - Glucose - Linear form always the same - When it makes a ring, changes the way we process it - Alpha trans - Beta sis - Fructose - Galactose - Sugar isomers - same formula different spot sis/trans - - Different form dictates different function 3 important points about sugars 1. Location of carbonyl group 2. Number of C atoms 3. Spatial arrangement of atoms - Glycosidic linkage​ - sugar polymers - Dehydration synthesis - Maltose & water - Alpha - 1,4 - Beta - 1,4 - Beta galactose and glucose - lactose intolerance - DIFFERENT FORM, DIFFERENT FUNCTION - Disaccharides - ​ short term energy storage - 2 monomers - Sucrose = glucose & fructose - Lactose = glucose & galactose - Polysaccharides - ​ long term energy - Energy storage, structure, cell identity - Exoskeleton - Sugar, hydrogen, oxygen ​ - Starch​ - corn, potato -​ long term energy storage for plants - Alpha 1,4 glycosidic linkages - Alpha 1, 6 glycosidic linkage - Stored in plant cells ​ - Glycogen - ​ long term e ​ nergy storage for animals - Stored in muscles and liver - More Alpha 1,6 linkages than starch - Helical polymer (forms into a helix) ​ - Cellulose​ - plant ​structural polymers - Plants like algae - Alternate flipping allows for hydrogen bond - Beta 1, 4 glycosidic linkage - Animals cannot digest cellulose, FIBER - Fungi, bacteria and rumen and termites - Cell wall​ - material protective layer around cells, cellulose is a major piece of this wall. - Linear molecule (unlike starch helix shape) because of the flipping of glucose residue Main points to note about residue shape: 1. Linear molecule 2. Allows many hydrogen bonds between adjacent, parallel strands of cellulose *Cellulose - our enzymes can't digest it* ​ - Chitin ​- fungi ​ tructural polymer AND some insect and crustacean exoskeleton - Anti flea medicine interferes with the larvae to create an exoskeleton to become a flea - Glucose residues - NAG monosaccharide, pretty sure we don’t need to know this but if you’re interested, that’s it! - Every other residue is flipped - Linked by Beta 1,4 links ​ - Peptidoglycan​ - bacteria, s ​ tructural support to build cell walls - Most complex of the polysaccharides - NAG monosaccharide and NAM monosaccharide - Alternate NAG and NAM - Linked by Beta 1,4 links with short chain of amino acids connected at C-3 carbon of NAM - Amino acids involved - When peptidoglycan align the peptide bonds link the amino acid chains to adjacent strands, much like hydrogen bonds between cellulose and chitin - Penicillin - inhibit peptidoglycan synthesis take out good bacteria as well - Structural Carb polymers - strands organized into fibers or sheets (hydrogen or peptide bonds) - Polysaccharides are created when enzymes catalyze by ways of glycosidic links between monosacc. that are of either form Alpha or Beta 1,4 and 1,6 - Most are long chains of residues, when there’s a linear chain, adjacent strands connected by hydrogen bonds or other links. Glycoproteins​ - protein/carbohydrate combination - cell identity - Example: A, B, O blood groups - O most common - AB - universal recipient - based on presence of glycoprotein - Transmembrane proteins - Oligosaccharide - few sugars - Completely unique per person - Reproduction Function of Carbs Serve as: - a substrate for more complex molecules such as DNA/RNA formation etc. - Building blocks in synthesis of important molecules like amino acids - Provide fibrous structural materials - Form fibers that in turn create strength and elasticity for organisms. - Cell identity - Carbs attached to lipids and proteins are projecting outward from the surface of the cell - Storage for energy Glycolipid​ - lipid that has one or more covalently bonded carbs - Key molecule in cell-cell recognition and cell-cell signaling - Carbs are the root of reproduction during sperm and egg fertilization - Carbs store more chemical energy than CO2 PHOTOSYNTHESIS - Plants generate it - CO2 + H2O + sunlight -> (CH2O) + O2 - Carbon dioxide(polar covalent) and water in sun and make carbohydrates - Residual is oxygen - Energy gets locked into plant as a bond - Much more potential energy - Polar to nonpolar Energy stored in glucose to make ATP - Used when cell needs energy, the breakdown of glucose is captured by the cell by ways of synthesis of nucleotide adenosine triphosphate (ATP). So when energy is release sugars are processed to create ATP. - Stored in C-H and C-C bonds released to become new C=O bonds which form ATP - Free energy in ATP (energy currency of the cell) is used to drive endergonic reactions (not spontaneous) and perform cell work ATP makes chemical energy useful to the cell - Burning carbs to make ATP


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