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HSTSM 111 Notes, Week 2

by: Bennett Jarvis

HSTSM 111 Notes, Week 2 HSTAM111

Marketplace > University of Washington > History > HSTAM111 > HSTSM 111 Notes Week 2
Bennett Jarvis
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These notes cover a variety of topics throughout the Bronze Age. The primary focus is on the Old, Middle and New Kingdoms of Ancient Egypt. That said there are also sections which highlight the H...
Joel T Walker
Class Notes
Bronze Age, ancient egypt, Hittites, OldKingdomEgypt, MiddleKingdomEgypt, NewKingdomEgypt





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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bennett Jarvis on Sunday October 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HSTAM111 at University of Washington taught by Joel T Walker in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see THE ANCIENT WORLD (I&S) in History at University of Washington.


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Date Created: 10/16/16
HSTAM 111 Notes – Week Two Egypt Before the Pharaohs  Nile River o The connecting between the Blue Nile and the White Nile  Blue Nile supplies much of the volume, is much faster and larger.  White Nile supplies most of the sediment, is much slower than the former. o The combination of the two create for an incredibly fertile landscape.  “Egypt was the gift of the Nile” o Unlike the Tigris or the Euphrates, the Nile river is much moreEgyptians rely predictable. more on the  Egyptian seasons of the Nile Nile than o Inundation (akhet): Mid-July to Mid-November Mesopotamia o Emergence (peret): Mid-January to early May ns did on the Predictabil o Harvest (shemu): Mid-May to September Tigris and ity  Agriculture, as in Mesopotamia, created larger, sedentary populations Euphrates Desert  Egyptians called their land the Black Land due to the fertile soil rivers. would o The desert was known as the Red Land become o The desert had become near inhospitable since the drying out around more 5,000 BCE  The preservation of the dead in Egypt is exceptional importa nt later o Dry climate on in o Large respect for the dead in burials, as in Mesopotamia, however with history. the addition of burial goods due to different beliefs.  Upper Egypt  Pre-dynastic pharaohs of Abydos. The Invention of Writing in Egypt  Hieroglyphics  “Sacred writing” from Greek (Medou Netjer  Words of the Gods) o Not a Semitic Language but rather an Afro-asiatic one.  Cuneiform evolved from pictograms into phonograms o Egyptian society remained heavily conservative  Hieroglyphics remained pictograms for thousands of years.  Knowledge of Egyptian writing was completely lost between the years around 300-1800 CE o Napoleon invades Egypt in the early 19 Century and the Rosetta Stone is discovered.  Stone written in three languages:  Hieroglyphics  Hieratics (cursive hieroglyphs)  Greek  A known language.  The stone was a list of regulations protecting priests during Antiquity. Egyptian Gods HSTAM 111 Notes – Week Two  Horus  Sobek  Anubis  Set  Ra  Osiris  Thoth  Amon  Isis  Hathor  Ptah HSTAM 111 Notes – Week 2  The gods and goddesses were animal-headed which appalled the Romans and Christians o This denoted a different view of animals and their role in the world  Animals were mummified and certain ones were particularly sacred to different gods.   The Old Kingdom  The Old Kingdom began with the centralization of power o Earliest dynasties based in Upper Egypt in Abydos  Buried in mastabas  Mastaba of Den  50 by 26 meters  46 storage room  Grave goods  Third Dynasty 2,700 BCE o Power shifts from Abydos to Memphis (Upper to Lower Egypt)  Founder of the 3 Dynasty: Djoser Beginning of pyramid o Wanted something more incredible than just a mastaba  Architect Imhotep building  Imhotep created the first pyramid. o It is speculated that the pharaohs wanted their tombs to be “Gateways to Heaven”  Cosmic order (Ma at) o Part of the soul could achieve the afterlife Contrast  For this to happen, the body corpse had to be maintained with to food and drink in its tomb. previous o Tombs contained everything one wanted in the afterlife beliefs o Elites wanted to enjoy the same pleasures in heaven as they had on earth. th  Apex of pyramid building  5 Dynasty o The great pyramids build over a span of about 100 years o Khufu, Khafre, Menkaure  Pharaohs of the great pyramids  Earlier assumptions that the pyramids were built through slave labor are now believed to be false. o Theory may have sprouted from Hebrew slavery in Egypt as told by the Bible. o Evidence of regular meals, paid receipts, careful medical repair  4 Dynasty  Sphynx: symbol of pharaonic power Horse Peoples: Hittites and Other Indo-Europeans  Setting the Scene  Eurasian Steppe  Ecological zone covering a band across from Central Europe into Northern China. HSTAM 111 Notes – Week 2   Horses  Horses first domesticated (5,000/6,000 BCE) o Wild horses do not exist anymore o Region of the Steppe between the Black and Caspian Seas  This created an easier nomadic alternative o Much more vibrant nomadic society  Movement; Milk; Meat  New form of hunting and warfare o Cultures based upon hunting and fighting from horseback  Powerful advantage  Domination over smaller, agricultural cultures  Connection to the spread of the Indo-European languages o Proto-Indo-European  Hittite  Indo-Iranian  Sanskrit Hindi Urdu etc // Persian, Kurdish, etc  Hellenic  Greek  Italic  Latin  French, Spanish, Portuguese, etc  Armenian  Germanic  Icelandic, Norwegian, Swedish // English // German, Swiss, Yiddish  Albanian  Slavic  Polish, Czech, etc // Bulgarian, Slovene, etc // Russian, Ukrainian, etc  Celtic  Irish // Welsh  Baltic  Lithuanian // Prussian // Lettish  Anatolia  Assyrian traders coming out of Northern Iraq into Kanesh. o Brought cuneiform through Akkadian languages  Hittites adopted cuneiform into their language in the region of Kanesh  Hattusa  Capital of the Hittite Empire  Culture of Mesopotamia appropriated o Addition of Hittite culture such as the Hittite storm god  Most of Central Anatolia covered by the Hittites  Use of horse power  Chariots o Challenged even the power of Egypt to the south who had also begun to use chariots and horse power at the time.  The New Kingdom and the Egyptian Empire  Power and reasons  Prior to the New Kingdom  Egypt confined to solely the Nile river valley o One exception = Trade  Quest for precious metals and stones pushed Egyptians into Eastern Desert  Insecure supplies due to proximity to ancient Nubia HSTAM 111 Notes – Week 2 o Pharaoh Senosret III (12 Dynasty  Middle Kingdom)  Consolidated pharaonic power in Nubia  Strong evidence of close interaction between Nubians and Egyptians  Hatshepsut displayed use of trade rather that military campaigns to spread Woman imperial influence. pharaoh o Successors erased her name from history  Condemned from memory  accused of being toady to Priest of Amon   Hyksos and Liberation Insult to be ruled  Fragmentation of Egypt and takeover by the Hyksos by o Known by Egyptians as “Those who ruled without Ra”  War of liberation against Hyksos lead by brothers; Ahmose and Kamose  Thutmose III  campaigns in Syria  City states in Palestine under constant strain from Egyptian battery o Temple of Amon @ Luxor  Little adoption of hieroglyphics and Egyptian culture o Egyptians felt that they themselves had the right to their superior culture  Reforms of Akhenaton  Egyptian Empire remained stable until Amenhotep came to power o Decided to convert all of Egypt to worship the minor sun god Aton o New form of Monotheism called: Henotheism  Recognize other gods but only worship one o Changed name to Akhenaton: “Glory of Aton” o Wife, Nefertiti, shared the throne with her husband  Reforms did not go well with Egyptian people The afterlife o Population faced the loss of their afterlife was far too  Unrest grew and Army was compelled to remain in Egypt important in o The Empire began to fall Egyptian  Revival of the Hittite Empire posed as a deep threaculture o Hittites began to annex former states of the weakened Egyptian Empire  After Akhenaton fell out of history, his son eventually took power after a few short-lived pharaohs o Tutankhamon  extremely minor pharaoh  After Tutankhamon, a general took over  takeover of the army o Hor-em-hab  Recovery  Hor-em-hab appointed Ramses I, another general.  Ramses II, the greatest warrior pharaoh HSTAM 111 Notes – Week 2 o Repeatedly skirmished with the Hittites o Greatest chariot battle of history: Battle of Qadesh (see next page as well)  Ramses II vs Muwatalli II  Egypt and the Hittites entered into the oldest international treaty to survive from antiquity.  Internationalism in the Bronze Age  Canopic Jars  Jars that stored internal organs. o Practice dates back to Old Kingdom  Heat remains in the body to house the soul in the afterlife o Weighed above “feather of righteousness”  Must weigh less  Ulu Burun Shipwreck  Occurred off the coast of modern day Turkey  Contained original copper and tin ingots  180 together o Copper, tin & bronze  Also contained raw material  Ivory  Bronze weapons and tools; resins for burning  Origin  Ugarit, Syria o Texts in Ugarit written in multiple languages.  Amarra Letters  Egyptian diplomacy letters written in Cuneiform  Ramses II (1,279-1,212 BCE)  Battle of Qadesh 1274 BCE  ended in a stalemate o Treaty written in both Egyptian and Hittite o Prisoners exchanged  Beginnings of international Diplomacy  Built statues and temples into rock to commemorate what the Egyptians thought was their “victory” at Qadesh  Bronze Age Ends  1,200 BCE


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