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EPS 80: Lecture 8 Floods

by: Danielle Chen

EPS 80: Lecture 8 Floods XEPS 80

Danielle Chen

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About this Document

All info on Floods. Covers causes to mitigation.
earth and planetary science
Scott Hassler
Class Notes
floods, flood, EPS
25 ?




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Danielle Chen on Sunday October 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to XEPS 80 at University of California Berkeley taught by Scott Hassler in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see earth and planetary science in Enviornmental Sciences at University of California Berkeley.

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Date Created: 10/16/16
Lecture 8 10/12/16 Floods Flood​: a normally dry portion of the earth is covered by water Causes 1. Tsunamis a. Rare 2. Dam failures a. Should be rare (can be from insufficient engineering) b. More common in the east in US as the dams are getting older 3. Storm surge a. It is a large dome of water often 50-100 miles wide that sweeps across the coastline where a hurricane makes landfall. The storm tide is the combination of the storm surge and the astronomical tide 4. “Sunny Day” or nuisance flooding a. High tide plus sea level rise i. Sea levels at a given location depends on the combinations of 5. Streams a. Most common i. ^ Bc most of the earth’s surface are streams b. A system for delivering water (and sediment) from higher to lower elevations on the Earth's surface c. * most of the earth’s surfaces is arved my stream valleys- important for civilizations* i. Transportation ii. Food (growing plants, fishing) 1. Very fetire bc of topsoil/silt from floods iii. Waste disposal d. Stream floods are a global hazard Where and why do floods occur?- why is there “too much water”? ● Heating of land and ocean causes ​evaporation- ​ leading to clouds and due to ​wind, precipitation elsewhere ○ Ex: evaporation minus precipitation ● Wet air over the oceans so you get floods 1. Anywhere that wet marine air blows onshore a. Cyclonic tropical storms b. CA and West Coast: “Pineapple Express” storms c. This could happen again d. Could cause extensive landslides 2. Urbanization- the destinations of rainfall i. Infiltration ii. Runoff iii. Evaporation iv. Interception b. Natural groundcover slows the speed of surface runoff keeping water in contact with the ground surface for a longer time the increase infiltration, transmission and storage 3. The orographic “rain shadow” effect 4. El-Nino- Southern Oscillation (ENSO) a. Surface temperatures in the Pacific Ocean vary between El Nino and La Nina Conditions i. “Normal conditions” 1. Clockwise atmospheric circulation 2. Warm water in the west 3. Cool in the east b. El Nino Conditions i. Counter Clockwise ii. Atmospheric circulation iii. Warm water in east iv. Cool water trapped in deeper ocean c. During a strong el nino more “wet” storms hit North America d. It has global effects 5. La Nina a. This year 2016-7 weak La Nina b. La Nina is normal paleo evidence suggests that El Ninos have occurred for millions of years Basically-> El Nino “wet” La Nina “dry” Types​: 1. Flash floods a. Short b. Intense c. Local events d. Local intense rainfall e. Upstream floods cause lots of erosion 2. Downstream floods: long duration, regional events Flood Damage ● Erosion ● Transportation ● deposition Flood Prediction 1. History 2. Monitoring 3. Statistics a. Any good in a nonuniform atrian climate? i. No because the climate is always changing Flood Mitigation ● regulation /zoning ● Structural ○ Channelization ○ Levees ■ Natural levees-> occurs after floods, and get higher and higher after every flood * best solution as it naturally occurs ○ Retention ponds ■ Makes the water slow down *​Bottom line: floods can occur anywhere, but we can avoid them


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