Ancient Cities Oct 11 & 13
Ancient Cities Oct 11 & 13 HIST 202
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katlyn Burkitt on Sunday October 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 202 at Towson University taught by Gadotti in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views.
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Date Created: 10/16/16
Ancient Cities October 11, 2016 DISCLAIMER NOTES MAY BE DIRECTLY FROM LECTURE PRESENTATION Near East, Cyprus, and the Levant Case Studies of the Mercantile cities Enkomi (1700 BCE) o Bronze age, eastern part of Cyprus, on the coast. o Destroyed by fire and earthquake 1050BCe o Evidence that it was the capital of Alashiya (Important empire that controlled the copper trade) Evidenced by documents from Amarna A letter: King of Cyprus King of Egypt o He speaks like they are brothers and sends copper o Stone foundations with mudbrick super structure o Open space with funerary structures build around o AIII Before the wall was built 1450 BCE fortification walls were added with stone foundation and mudbrick super structure Laid out on a regular grid with main street met perpendicularly by 11 side streets that accessed 24 residential areas o Religious Buildings Rectangular pillers, stepped entrance, main gateway to an inner sanctuary where a statue of the god would be Ingot god and Horned god (Ancient names unknown) o Tombs One type is cut into rock One type is a rectangular building built out of ashlar with a stepped entrance Ugarit o Mediterranean coast of Syria o Has been occupied since the Neolithic period o Best example of Levantine urbanism o Period contemporary to Enkomi Excavated continuously Have a palace, temple, city wall, fortresses, toms, and domestic architecture. With approximately 5,000 – 8,000 people living there. (This is why it’s important because they have all the forms of monumental architecture in this location) o The Palace Built in stone One-acre large Tombs to the north Administration to the South and east Garden and potential living quarters to the east o Temples Found on the acropolis The temple of Baal (The god) The temple of Dagan (Storm god older than Baal) Both Strong foundations supporting platform to the central worship center Monumental internal staircase indicating multiple stories Residential areas nearby housed people who worked at the temple o No regularity in structure o No social distinction between neighborhoods o Destroyed and abandoned around 1200BCE Ancient Cities October 13, 2016 DISCLAIMER NOTES MAY BE DIRECTLY FROM LECTURE PRESENTATION Assyrian Capitals City of Kalhu o Two citadels one for military purposes and one for religious and administrative purposes o Archeological evidence Palace of Assurnasirpal II Decorated with statues that were seen as protective genii Dur- Sharukin (721-705) o Founded by Sargon II o The name means the fortress of Sargon o Surrounded by towered walls o The palaces of Sargon II was also there o Was never inhabited because Sargon died Niveveh (705 – 681) o Where Senacherib moved the capital after the death of his father Sargon II. o He believed that by his death the gods were saying that he was too arrogant in his aspirations to move the capital Phoenician Urbanism Located on the coast and spans from southern Syria to northern Israel Sea bearing people that were never unified politically but always culturally During the late bronze age, they were organized into city states 1100 BCE they engage in the timber trade with large merchant fleets 1000BCE Increase in trade activity under the control of the city of Tyre Largest contribution is the Phoenician alphabet which is still in use in a modified form Habors/Cities o Why do we have so little information? All major Phoenician sites have been continually occupied meaning they are under modern cities, or they were systematically destroyed. o Atlit Oldest example and best example Gate divided it from the city o Tyre 2 Harbors: One natural and one artificial 2 Island joined together Known for its purple dye Market place in the NE Palace in the S Earliest evidence from external locations is 1400 BCE o Sidon Not excavated, under a modern city Has been occupied since the Paleolithic Temple of Eshmun Stone was the primary material Large open area and court Dedicated to the god of healing Built near waters that were believed to have healing abilities Built on a terrace Temple of Amrit Built out of stone Around an artificial lake Built on a platform Dedicated to Megart (another healing god) The lake was adorned with buildings and colonnades that were flaked with towers o Carthanege Founded by a queen of Tyre Had a rich agricultural hinterland Main crops: Grain, olives, grapes, and figs which were grown on wealthy estates for both in city use and export Exports: Food above, ivory, potter, and jewelry Run by a hereditary oligarchy Elected based on wealth and merit Ran the city through assembly and council of elders The city wall had gates and towers There was another temple to Eshmun Tophet A children’s cemetery This indicated that the individuals may have practiced child sacrifice which is also attested through records in the Hebrew bible, that states that these people killed children through fire as offerings to the gods If this was the case it was the wealthier members of the society who had to offer a child or animal to appease the gods.
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