New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

BIOLOGY 120 LECTURE Week 7 Flashcards

by: Michelle Noratel

BIOLOGY 120 LECTURE Week 7 Flashcards Biol 120

Marketplace > Towson University > Biology > Biol 120 > BIOLOGY 120 LECTURE Week 7 Flashcards
Michelle Noratel
GPA 3.734

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These are the notes from the Week Seven lectures "Genetics" and "Epigenetics," as well as the "Protein Synthesis" worksheet (which totally doesn't belong with this one, but I added it to the wrong ...
Principles of Biology
Jennifer M Wenzel
Class Notes
chromosomal abnormalities, Chromosomes, karyotype, nondisjunction, Trisomy, XXY, XO, XYY, deletion, duplication, inversion, translocation, gene, GeneExpression, methylated, acetylated, epigenetics
25 ?




Popular in Principles of Biology

Popular in Biology

This 15 page Class Notes was uploaded by Michelle Noratel on Sunday October 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biol 120 at Towson University taught by Jennifer M Wenzel in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology in Biology at Towson University.

Similar to Biol 120 at Towson


Reviews for BIOLOGY 120 LECTURE Week 7 Flashcards


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 10/16/16
"Epigenetics" Lecture Eight Flashcards  Chromosomes are composed of  chromatin, which is DNA wound  around proteins called "histones" (go  back to Lecture Five notes for more  information (:). Histones are proteins  associated with DNA. What is Gene Expression?  Methylation of DNA and histones  causes nucleosomes to pack tightly  together. Transcription factors  (proteins that facilitate gene  expression) cannot bind the DNA, and  genes are not expressed.  Methylated DNA is not  Nucleosomes are small portions of  DNA wrapped around histones expressed  Histone acetylation results in loose  packing of nucleosomes. Transcription  factors can bind the DNA and genes  are expressed Acetylated DNA is expressed "Epigenetics" Lecture Eight Flashcards  Methyl groups and acetyl groups are  responsible for regulating which genes  are expressed  This means that these chemicals  Gene Expression control gene activity and their presence or absence within in a cell or at a  specific gene dictates what that cell  does­­this influences "who" we are  Our experiences shape our genes­­not  which genes we have, but where,  Are our genes our fate? when, and how they are being  expressed  The study of phenotypic trait variations caused by external/environmental  factors that switch genes on and off  and affect how cells read genes  These variations are NOT caused  by changes in the DNA sequence What are Epigenetics?  How are changes in gene expression  due to external factors involved in:  Appearance  Behavior  Cancer  Psychological disorders  Changes in our offspring "Chromosomal Abnormalities" Lecture Nine Flashcards What is Chromosomal  A missing, extra, or irregular portion of chromosomal DNA Abnormality?  Problems in the number of  chromosomes (either too many or too  little)  Missing pieces of chromosomes (some  pieces may be lost or rearranged)  Translocations on chromosomes (a  piece of a chromosome breaks off and  re­attaches  The number and appearance of  What is a Karyotype? chromosomes in the nucleus of a  eukaryotic cell "Chromosomal Abnormalities" Lecture Nine Flashcards  Problems in number of chromosomes So what are  Trisomy 21  Trisomy 13 Chromosomal  Kleinfelter Syndrome  Turner Syndrome Abnormalities?  XYY  Chromosomal abnormalities  result in various symptoms  based upon the chromosome  affected and how  Problems in structure of chromosomes  Deletion  Duplication  Inversion  Translocation  Each species has a specific number of  Problems in number: chromosomes Nondisjunction  If homologous chromosomes don't  separate properly during cell division  (nondisjunction), cells end up with  incorrect numbers of chromosomes   Aneuploidy : an abnormal number of  chromosomes   Monosomy  : when an individual is  missing a chromosome from a pair   Trisomy, tetrasomy, .  when an  individual has more than two  chromosomes of a pair "Chromosomal Abnormalities" Lecture Nine Flashcards What is Trisomy 21?  Down Syndrome  Occurs when individual has three  copies of chromosome 21   Physical symptoms  : spots on the eye,  flattened facial profile, poor muscle  tone, short statue, etc   Cognitive symptoms  : speech delay,  intellectual disability, impulsivity, etc  1 in 700 births (1/ ) 700  Older women have a larger probability  of having a child with Down Syndrome because (since a woman is born with  all of the eggs that she will ever have)   Patau Syndrome her eggs become older and What is Trisomy 13?  Most lethal trisomy with median  survival is 3 days ­­ many are  miscarried   Symptoms  : severe mental deficiency,  facial clefting, neurological and heart  defects  1/  births 9500  Increased risk with mother's age "Chromosomal Abnormalities" Lecture Nine Flashcards What is XXY?  Klinefelter Syndrome  Genotype is male  Phenotype can be male, female, or  intersex  Usually male  1500to 1000 male births  Extra X could come from mother or  father  S y m p t o ms: sterility, less testosterone  production leading to slightly  feminized appearance in adolescence  (less muscle tone, less body hair,  gynecomastia)  May have cognitive and physical  delays "Chromosomal Abnormalities" Lecture Nine Flashcards XO  Turner Syndrome  Genotype and phenotype female  Only 45 chromosomes  1/  female births 2500  Missing chromosome from mother or  father   Symptoms:   short stature, webbed  neck, broad chest, etc  Some have difficulty with imagining  objects in relation to each other,  nonverbal memory and attention, sense of direction, manual dexterity,  nonverbal learning and social skills "Chromosomal Abnormalities" Lecture Nine Flashcards  11000ale births XYY  Usually no huge impact, most don't  even know  Males with XXY karyotype have an  increased growth velocity from early  childhood, with an average final height approximately 7cm (3" above expected height Problems in  Typically occur due to errors in  crossover Chromosomal Structure  Deletion: prodcution of one or more  copies of any piece of DNA  Inversion: segment of a chromosome is reversed end to end  Translocation: rearrangement of parts  between non­homologous  chromosomes "Chromosomal Abnormalities" Lecture Nine Flashcards  Literally "cat's cry" syndrome Deletion: Cri du chat  Deletion on chromosome 5  Extent of deletion varies Syndrome   Symptoms:   intellectual disability and  delayed development, small head size  (microcephaly), low birth weight, and  weak muscle tone 1/ 1/  20,000 50,000irths  From mother or father "Chromosomal Abnormalities" Lecture Nine Flashcards  Genetic information at the q21.1  Duplication: position of chromosome 1 is duplicated 1q21.1 microduplication at least once  May represent a number of symptoms,  including;  Autism  Large head  Learning disability  Heart defects  Seizures, etc  Prevalence is unknown, but  1/  people  700 tested for 1q21.1 have it "Chromosomal Abnormalities" Lecture Nine Flashcards  Inversion of chromosome 9  Inversion: inv(9)p12q13 inv(9)p12q13  Most common inversion  Occurs in 2% of population  Likely harmless  Some controversial reports suggest it  contributes to male infertility "Chromosomal Abnormalities" Lecture Nine Flashcards Translocation:  Translocation  Philadelphia chromosome Philadelphia  Translocation of chromosome 9 and 22  Contributes to chronic myelogenous  Chromosome leukemia (CML)  Alteration in the DNA sequences  Single Gene Mutations forming a single gene  May be inherited or acquired through  environmental exposure  A mutated gene will not be able to  produce the correct amino acid  sequence, which may lead to problems  (e.g., Huntington's Disease) "Chromosomal Abnormalities" Lecture Nine Flashcards So, what is Huntington's  Brain disorder affecting ability to  think, talk, and move Disease?  Mutation in a gene on chromosome 4,  which codes for the huntingtin protein  Normally, this gene's DNA sequence  contains "CAG" repeated again and  again (usually 10­20 times)  People with Huntington's Disease have  an abnormally high number of these  CAG triplets (around 40+)  The brain cells of Huntington's Disease patients accumulate clumps of protein  that become toxic, resulting in cell  death  Some patients lose more than 25% of  their brain cells before they die In order for a human to  The correct number of chromosomes  The chromosomes to have all of the  be "right," "typical," correct genes  The genes in the chromosomes to be in etc, it has to have... the correct order of their bases Protein  Synthesis:  Transcription  and  Translation   Protein  synthesis  is  a  complex  process  made  up  of  the  2  ▯processes  transcription  and  translation.  In   this  activity  you  will  trace  the  steps  that  are  involved  in  protein  ▯synthesis.     A.  Transcription     Protein  synthesis  begins  with  DNA  in  the  nucleus.  Transcri▯ption  takes  place  in  the  nucleus  of  the  cell.   During  transcription  messenger  RNA  (mRNA)  reads  and  copies  ▯DNA's  nucleotide  sequence  in  the   form  of  a  complimentary  RNA  strand.  Then  the  mRNA  carries  th▯e  DNA's  information  in  the  form  of   codons  to  the  ribosome.  Codons  are  a  3  nucleotide  sequence  ▯in  an  mRNA  strand.  At  the  ribosome,   amino  acids  will  be  assembled  to  form  a  polypeptide,  which  will  become  a  protein.     Remember, A/T(U in RNA) and C/G pairs! A/T are Below  is  a  DNA  sequence.  Write  the  sequence  of  mRNA  codons▯  that  would  result  from  the   transcription  of  the  DNA  sequence.     st raighter, C/G are curvy/circula r DNA:          ACA        ATA        TAG        CTT        TTG        ACG        GGG        AAC        CCC        ATT     mRNA:  ________________________________________________________   B.  Translation     Translation  takes  place  on  the  ribosome.  For  translation,  amino  acids  are  gathered  based  on  the   mRNA  codons.  Amino  acids  bond  together  forming  polypeptide  chains,  which  wil▯l  form  proteins.     Rewrite  your  mRNA  sequence  from  part  A.  Using  the  amino  acid▯s  table,  determine  the  sequence  of   amino  acids  based  on  your  mRNA  strand.  Use  hyphens  (dashe▯s)  to  separate  amino  acids.     mRNA:  __________________________________________________________________________       Amino  Acid  Sequence:  _______Cysteine - Histidine - Isoleucine - Glutamic acid____   ___________________________________________________________________________▯_____   Arginine - STOP ________________________________________________________________________________                                 Label  the  following  diagram  of  Protein  Synthesis.     DNA mRNA   protein mRNA ribosome     Answer  the  following  questions  about  Protein  Synthesis.     Part  A   The RNA strand leaves the nucleus, meets with a ribosome, and .   6    Define  translation.  
   instructs the cell how to build the protein for that gene -- The .     decoding of an mRNA message into a polypeptide chain (protein) .   7    List  all  of  the  molecules  in  the  process  RNA strand, nucleus, ribosome, proteins, cytoplasm .   8    Translation  takes  place  in  the  __________________________________▯_.  
   Part  B     .   9    Define  transcription.  
   .    for a certain gene is unwound and a complementary mRNA strand is pro duced .   10    List  all  of  the  molecules  in  the  process  transcription.  
   DNA, mRNA .   11    Transcription  takes  place  on  the  ________________________________▯____.  
   General  Question     12  What  is  the  purpose  of  protein  synthesis?       create a polypeptide -- a protein made out of a chain of amino acids. This tells our body what it needs to do in order to express our genes an d make us who we are!


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Kyle Maynard Purdue

"When you're taking detailed notes and trying to help everyone else out in the class, it really helps you learn and understand the I made $280 on my first study guide!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.