psychology chapter 5: consciousness notes
psychology chapter 5: consciousness notes Psy120000
Purdue University Calumet
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kira Lisle on Sunday October 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psy120000 at Purdue University Calumet taught by Mrs. January in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Elementary Psychology in Educational Psychology at Purdue University Calumet.
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Date Created: 10/16/16
Chapter 5: Consciousness ❖ Consciousness: person’s subjunctive experience of the world and the mind ❖ Phenomenology: how things seen to the conscious person ❖ Consciousness has 4 basic properties ➢ 1. Intentionali being directed toward an object ➢ 2. Unity: resistance to division ➢ 3. Selectivity: capacity to include some objects but not others ■ Dichotic listening: task in which people wearing headphones hear different messages presented to each ear ■ Cocktail party phenomenon: people tune in one message even while they filter out others nearby ➢ 4. Transience: tendency to change ❖ Multitasking well is a myth ➢ You can only focus well on one thing ❖ Mind wandering is not necessarily a bad thing!!! ❖ Sometimes we aren’t aware that we are daydreaming ❖ Consciousness ranges in levels from minimal to full to self-consciousness ➢ Minimal > low level ➢ Full > you know and are able to report your mental state ➢ Self-consciousness > person’s attention is drawn to the self as an object ■ Recognition of self in mirrors by humans and other animals ❖ Experiencing sampling techniques ❖ Mental control: attempt to change conscious states of mind ❖ Thought suppression: conscious avoidance of a thought ➢ Ironic processes of mental control ■ Freud vs Modern Dynamic cognitive Repression subliminal ❖ Altered state of consciousness: orms of experience that depart from the normal subjunctive experience of the world and the mind ❖ Circadian rhythms: the biological clock in you body ❖ Experience > ability to feel pain, pleasure, awareness of sensory environment ❖ Agency > ability to plan or exert control ❖ Unity > resistance to division ❖ What you call multitasking is really task-switching ➢ It slows you down not more efficient better, faster, exerts less energy ❖ Sleep cycle ➢ 5 stages of sleep: ■ non-REM sleep ■ Stage 1 ■ Stage 2 ■ Stage 3 ■ Stage 4 ❖ REM sleep > a stage of sleep characterized by rapid eye movements and high level of brain activity ➢ Dreaming occurs most often here ➢ Body immobilized ❖ Most sleep disorders happen in stage 4 sleep (ie: sleep-walking) ❖ Memories deteriorate unless sleep occurs ❖ Short term sleep deprivation consequences: ➢ Decreased performance and alertness ➢ Memory and cognitive impairment ➢ Irritability ➢ Increased risk for accidents ■ Automobile ■ Occupational ❖ Prolonged sleep deprivation ➢ Microsleep > lasts 2-3 minutes. Individual isn’t aware of the sleep and reports a “zoning out” experience ➢ Delusions, hallucinations ➢ Medical conditions ➢ Death? ❖ Not enough sleep may lead to hunger which is why obesity is a problem with insomnia ❖ Sleep disorders: ➢ Insomnia: difficulty in falling asleep or staying asleep ➢ Sleep apnea: person stops breathing for brief periods while asleep ➢ Somnambulism (sleep-walking): occurs when the person arises and walks around during sleep ➢ Narcolepsy: sudden sleep attacks occur in the middle of waking activities ➢ Sleep paralysis: experience of waking up unable to move ➢ Night terrors: abrupts awakening with panic and intense emotional arousal ■ Night terrors are most often in children but sometimes occur in adulthood ❖ You should always wake them it is more dangerous to sleepwalk ❖ Somnambulistic > sleepwalkers in cartoons have their arms outstretched and eyes closed, but that’s just for cartoons ➢ A real life sleepwalker usually walks normally with eyes open, sometimes with a glossy look in their eyes ❖ There are five major characteristics that distinguish dreaming from waking consciousness: ➢ Intense emotion ➢ Illogical thought ➢ Meaningful sensation ➢ Uncritical acceptance ➢ Difficulty remembering ❖ Freud ➢ Dreams represent unacceptable wishes that the mind can only express in disguised form ➢ Manifest content: dreams apparent topic or superficial meaning ➢ Latent content: dreams true underlying meaning ❖ Activation - synthesis model ➢ Theory that dreams are produced when the brain attempts to make sense of activations that occur randomly during sleep ➢ fMRI scans of brains during dreaming show brain areas involved in emotion and visual imagery, but not the prefrontal cortex (planning) ❖ Information processing and problem solving: ➢ Consolidate new information - dreams may help sift, sort, and fix day’s experiences in our memories ➢ Help you understand new experience- dreams may link new events to old ones, putting them in context ❖ Psychoactive drug: a chemical substance that alters perceptions and mood (effects consciousness) ❖ Drug use, misuse, and abuse ➢ 1. Tolerance: tendency for larger doses of a drug to be required over time to achieve the same effect ➢ 2. Withdrawal: upon stop taking a drug (after addiction) users may experience undesirable effects of withdrawal ❖ Types of psychoactive drugs ➢ There are several categories of drugs ■ Depressant ■ Narcotics ■ Stimulants ■ Hallucinogens ■ Marijuana ➢ Depressants: substances that reduce the activity of the CNS ■ Includes alcohol, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, and some toxic inhalants ■ Opiates are sometimes also included in this class ■ Barbiturates and benzodiazepines > often prescribed to treat anxiety or sleep problems ➢ Narcotics (opiates): highly addictive drugs derived from opium that relieve pain ➢ Stimulants: substances that excite the CNS, heightening arousal and activity levels ➢ Hallucinogens: drugs that alter sensation and perception and often cause visual and auditory hallucinations ➢ Marijuana: leaves and buds of the hemp plant that produces an intoxication that is mildly hallucinogenic
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