Psychology Chapter 6 Notes
Psychology Chapter 6 Notes PSY 1010
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marissa DeLisio on Sunday October 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 1010 at Ohio University taught by Sandra Hoyt in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Ohio University.
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Date Created: 10/16/16
Chapter 6: Memory Memory: the active mental system that encodes, stores and retrieves information Memory errors can occur at any stage Your memory is like your sock drawer; it is messy and unorganized; it is not like a tape recorder When you retrieve a memory, you are rebuilding that moment and can miss a few details o 1. Free recall- a question where you answer from your own memory (a short answer/essay test question) o 2. Choice- you pick an answer from given choices (multiple choice test questions) The Process of Memory o Encoding: sensory information is transformed into mental representations o Storage: memories are maintained for immediate or future use o Retrieval: accessing the information Three Memory Systems o 1. Sensory Memory: system that holds current sensory information for a brief moment. Can hold a very large amount of info You have access to these memories for 2-3 seconds 2 Types o 1. Iconic Sensory Memory: sight (the light we see that follows sparklers) o 2. Ecnoic Sensory Memory: sound o 2. Short Term Memory: working memory; information you can keep in conscious awareness without further processing info lasts for 20-30 seconds capacity: the “magic number” 7(+/-) 2, can hold between 5-9 memories strategies to extend the time limit and memory capacity: repetition, extends time chunking (breaking info down), extends capacity o 3. Long Term Memory: unlimited store-house of information and memories processes for long term memory: repetition elaboration (grouping, finding patterns, etc) o the better strategy How are these memories stored? Firing neurons Semantic networks o Everything in your memory is connected to other things Types of Long Term Memory o Explicit memory- memories that you search for in your conscious 1. Episodic memory: memory of experiences that you’ve had, they are typically rich in detail 2. Semantic Memory: memories of knowledge, facts and info; but they aren’t as rich in detail o Implicit Memory: memories that randomly pop up 1. Procedural Memory: memories of activities and behaviors that you do so often, you don’t think about doing them Retrieval o Retrieval cues: extra information that gets stored along with the original memory External retrieval cues: external information encoded with original memory, triggers memory when experienced again Internal retrieval cues: internal states encoded with the original memory can trigger memory when it is experienced again (emotions) Problems in Retrieval o Amnesia Types: 1. Retrograde: loss of memories from the past (before trauma), damage to the cerebral cortex, people tend to remember implicit memories (playing the piano) 2. Anterograde: loss of memories after trauma, cannot form new memories, damage to hippocampus, many people are aware that they have a memory problem o Alzheimer’s damage to hippocampus and loss of acetylcholine o Normal Forgetting Serial position curve Decay and interference Mnemonic Devices: Memory Strategies o First-letter technique o Method of Ioci o Peg-word mnemonic o Self-cues, vivid imagery and elaboration
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