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BSC 114, Chapter 12

by: Hannah Tomlinson

BSC 114, Chapter 12 BSC 114

Hannah Tomlinson

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Chapter 12
Principles Of Biology I
Kimberly Caldwell
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hannah Tomlinson on Sunday October 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 114 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Kimberly Caldwell in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Principles Of Biology I in Biology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.

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Date Created: 10/16/16
10/5 Chapter 12: Mitosis and Cell Division Cell Division  The division of one cell into daughter cells  Also the division of identical genetic material to the 2 daughter cells  Genome=a cell’s total heredity endowment of DNA Cytoskeleton  3 types of fibers in the cytoskeleton -Microtubules (thickest): spindle -Intermediate filaments -Microfilaments (actin filaments): cytoskeleton Nucleus  contains most of the genetic material of the cell  It’s enclosed by the nuclear envelope -The nuclear envelope is a double membrane with pores for the passage of certain molecules  Within the nucleus our DNA is organized with protein into chromatin that looks like stringy mess with a microscope  Chromatin (DNA + protein) condenses into chromosomes before cell division Eukaryotic Nucleus  Complex  More than 1 DNA molecule  Every species has a characteristic number of chromosomes -e.g.: Human somatic (nonreproductive) cells have 46 chromosomes -e.g.: Human reproductive cells (germ cells) have 23 chromosomes Chromatin  DNA complexed with proteins (called histones) -Maintain structure of DNA -Helps control the activity of genes -After DNA duplicated, chromatin coils and supercoils to form chromosomes -If stretched, one Chr is about 5 cm long (whole genome is about 3 m long) -Chromatin is coiled to fit in nucleus Cell Cycle  Regular sequence of cell growth and division  Length of cell cycle varies from 10-30 hours depending on the cell type  Not all cells undergoing cell cycle (some may be differentiating and no longer growing)  In a dividing cell, the M phase alternates with interphase, a growth period  During interphase, the cell grows and copies its chromosomes in preparation for cell division Major Phases of Cell Cycle  G1—gap 1 phase—initial growth phase  S phase—DNA is replicated  G2—gap 2 phase—preparation for division  Mitosis—nuclear division and cytokinesis Mitosis  Function- separate genetic info into 2 = quantities  Continuous process (divided into 5 phases) -Prophase -Prometaphase -Metaphase -Anaphase -Telophase  Successful mitotic cell divisions alternate with a much longer interphase Interphase  Active nucleus  Broken down into G1, S, G2 phases of cell cycle  Has a nuclear envelope  Long, thin chromatin  Has nucleoli  Centrosomes outside the nucleus  Growth occurs in G and S phases Prophase  Chromatin coils to form chromosomes  A chromosome consists of 2 parts called sister chromatids -Sister chromatids contain identical copies of the DNA molecule  Nucleoli disappear  Still has nuclear envelope Confusing Terms  Centrosomes organize microtubules of spindle apparatus  Centromere: region where chromatids are held together  Kinetochore: protein structure on chromatids where spindle microtubules attach, located at the centromere region Prometaphase  Nuclear envelope breaks down  Microtubules of the spindle now invade the nucleus and interact with the chromosomes, which have become even more condensed Metaphase  Chromosomes line up with centromeres in a plane in the center of a spindle apparatus  This region is called the metaphase plate (equator)  Chromosomes still consist of 2 chromatids that straddle the metaphase plate Anaphase  Sister chromatids separate  Spindle fibers shorten and pull sister chromatids in opposite directions  Sister chromatids now called chromosomes  At the end of anaphase the 2 poles of the cell have equivalent and complete collections of chromosomes Telophase  2 daughter nuclei reorganize  spindle disperses, nuclear envelope and nucleoli reform  chromatin fiber of each chromosome becomes less tightly coiled  2 genetically identical daughter nuclei are seen  each chromosome has 1 DNA molecule  Cytokinesis is underway


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