Neighborhood Prevention CRMJ 303
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Luppino70 on Sunday October 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CRMJ 303 at University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire taught by Dr. Jason Spraitz in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Crime Prevention in Criminology and Criminal Justice at University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire.
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Date Created: 10/16/16
Ch. 5 Neighborhood Prevention Saturday, October 8, 2016 1:51 PM CPTED mat make offending more difficult but there is no firm evidence to say one way or another. However citizens who get involved is good at reducing crime and fear of crime Neighborhood Prevention: More awareness and problem solving happening within a community. Neighborhood Watch: Bring neighbors together to gain knowledge of who belongs and does not belong. Meetings taking place that give an increase in a sense of community and support neighborhood actions. Be proactive in seeing things occurring and that there might be potential problems. This builds collective efficacy, gives informal control to an area, more surveillance and this gives law enforcement a very useful tool. Neighborhood watch are informal groups so the amount of them in the country is not known Impact More positive effects and a reduction in fear of crime. Reduction in property crimes but overall the effect is unknown Critics Many of the groups form after a crime has already been committed. But the crime was a onetime thing and the program had nothing to do with the crime reduction but this may not be true. Citizens Patrol: citizens being outside and patrolling the streets for more surveillance and to alert law enforcement Guardian Angels are a famous group founded in the 70s from The Bronx. Whistle Stop, people patrolling and blow whistles when something is wrong Radio Watch Little research exists since not many patrols are known but studies say reduction in crime and fear, it just it not evidence based. Evaluation problems Defining the community, what are the boundaries and the meaning of the word neighborhood. There are other programs that operate as well and isolating the effect of a citizens patrol is difficult. One group may actually not have an impact on crime. Eck & Guerette Place is a micro geographic unit, somewhere one can stand and see everything Key features 1. Location, known spot of where something is 2. Boundaries, what is inside the place and what is outside the place 3. Function, what is the reason for the place 4. Control, who is in charge of the place. The controller the biggest stakeholder. They can organize a place to how they want the place to be set up. They regulate conduct. Have access control. Acquire resources, pay employees and get the items needed. However, how much is the controller in legal liability? 5. Size, the smaller the better Types Residential Transportation Public Retail Recreation Eck & Guerette found that residential, transportation, recreation, and retail places that had taken precautions with CPTED ideas had positive effects, but public places did not. This may be due to open and no containment, with a broader amount of deviance things occurring. Routine Activities Theory: crime is normal function of routine activities of modern living. Crimes come from motivated offenders with a suitable target and the lack of capable guardians. Cohen & Felson (1979) Intervening Guardians: Those who are seen in public, monitor an area and step in when something happens Capable Guardians: Those who are seen in public and observe Available Guardians: Those who are around but not looking out for trouble Invisible Guardians: Not known to be in the area Community Anti-Drug Programs (CAD): Putting the uses of drug treatment into the community Private Control: Interpersonal relationships that keep people from committing crime Parochial Control: adding more control mechanisms to the neighborhood like schools Public Schools: Support and resources to control through public agencies. New Parochialism: Combining parochial and public control