Chapter 8 Notes
Chapter 8 Notes CJ 240
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Michela Spicer on Sunday October 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CJ 240 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Joshua Wakeham in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Juvenile Delinquency in Criminal Justice at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 10/16/16
The Family and Delinquency KEY: the connection between family problems and delinquency is strong. Why? Multiple possible pathways from the family to delinquency How delinquency arises from the family is not straightforward- it could be more than one factor Practical considerations: different theories/explanations suggest different kinds of interventions The Family-Delinquency Pathways Genetics Family structure Family breakup Family conflict Family competence Family Deviance Abuse/neglect Biological Argument Do parents pass on criminal tendencies through genes? oGenetic components to behavior Aggression; IQ; Personality; Psychopathy? oSome traits appear to be passed on, but genes aren’t destiny Nurture, Not Nature Most research focuses on different aspects of the family environment oFamily structure KEY: different structures present different kinds of problems- some structures work better than others, on average Different types of family structures: “Traditional” nuclear families Single-parent families (87% single mothers) Blended families Cohabiting parents- “Fragile Families” Same-sex families oFamily breakup Research: secure marriages produce self-confident, independent children Family main source of informal social control “Broken Homes” – divorce, separated- strong connection to delinquency “Blended families” less stable than families with two biological parents Research: abuse more likely with live in boyfriend or stepfather Costs of family breakup on children: Behavior problems, hyperactivity Boys more affected by father’s absence Girls more affected by mother’s parenting and post-divorce conflict Children from cultures with lower divorce rates often experience worse outcomes Every divorce is different Low paternal involvement problems Separating from deviant fathers positive Role of pre- and post- divorce conflict Role of post-divorce parental behavior oFamily conflict Research: child’s perception of parental happiness a strong predictor for delinquency Witness of intrafamily or domestic violence associated with delinquent behavior Which is worse: divorced parents or married, miserable parents? Research: amicable divorce better than intact, fighting family oFamily competence Quality of parenting matters tremendously Protective factor even for “at risk” youth What does good parenting look like? Involves honesty, empathy, kindness, cooperation, self-control, and cheerfulness Promotes intellectual curiosity, academic success, motivation to learn, and desire to succeed 4 key factors according to psychological research Clarity- setting clear example (“do as I do”) Consistency- in applying rules Flexibility- adaptive to individual children’s needs Love- warm, physical affection oFamily deviance Most research: how family unintentionally encourages delinquency Deviant or criminal behavior from family members can also drive delinquent behavior Parental incarceration Sibling delinquency Parental criminality oAbuse and neglect Child abuse: any physical, emotional, or sexual trauma to a child, including neglecting to give proper care and attention, for which no reasonable explanation can be found Neglect: passive neglect by a parent or guardian, depriving children of food, shelter, health care, and love Duration matters- not usually a one time event Brief history Legal privacy/rights of parents to raise children as they see fit 1874: Nurse Etta Wheeler; concerted efforts to recognize abuse 1962: C. Henry Kempe and battered child syndrome Types of abuse Physical abuse Emotional abuse Sexual abuse Types of neglect Physical neglect Educational neglect Emotional/psychological neglect Medical neglect Abandonment Causes of Child Abuse and Neglect Parents who suffered abuse as children Unrealistic/developmentally inappropriate expectations Presence of an unrelated adult (ex: step parents) Isolated and alienated families Substance abuse Social class Delinquency and Family Structure Single parent households generally result in worse outcomes for kids o Locked-up delinquents and criminals much more likely to come from single-parent homes o Children from single-parent homes do worse on most behavioral and well-being measures compared to their two- parent family counterparts KEY: why might this be the case? Decline of Marriage Increase in out-of-wedlock births (CDC 2014 Report): o40.2% of all births in U.S. o29.3% of white, non-Hispanic o70.9% of black, non-Hispanic o52.9% of Hispanic o16.4% of Asian/Pacific Islanders Generally, these rates have been increasing over the last 40 years Research indicates out-of-wedlock births more concentrated among oYoung oPoor oLess-educated How do broader social and economic trends shape family structure? Is this a cultural problem? Is marriage becoming too difficult of a milestone to reach for the poor and working class? Teenage Motherhood Teenage motherhood has especially strong connection to delinquency o90% of teens unmarried oPoverty oOther social, personal problems Beyond Structure Family structure matters, but it is not the only issue oMost children from single parents will do fine oMany children from two-parent families have problems What else matters? oFamily dynamics Discipline and Punishment Another key part of good parenting: appropriate discipline and punishment oDiscipline: rules, routines, behavioral expectations oPunishment: consequences for breaking rules The problem with discipline: oToo strict, too harsh potential problem oToo lax, non-existent potential problem oInconsistent potential problem oWhat works? Consistency; not too strong; suitable and fair supervision; close and warm affection; strong family cohesiveness Does spanking and corporal punishment work? o Common refrain: “if we could only hit our kids like we could in the good ol’ days, then we wouldn’t have so many problems!” Research: several problems with spanking oOften escalates into physical abuse o Children who are spanked are: more aggressive; more likely to be bullies; more likely to use violence to solve problems o Frequent spanking long-term negative impact More likely to be delinquent or criminal KEY: simply doesn’t work- doesn’t change children’s misbehavior Frequent verbal assaults and abuse can do more psychological damage than physical assault “Coercion model” of parenting lead to conflict, hostility, rebelliousness Argumentative style + ineffective control over child can lead to delinquency KEY: emotional, relational styles learned in the family often carry over into the outside world, leading to more problems Supervision Problems Poor or inconsistent supervision associated with delinquency: oMother’s employment oBig families oBirth order- middle children Legacies of Crime KEY: criminal parents are more likely to produce delinquent children Giordano’s (2010) longitudinal study of delinquents/criminals and their children oSocial process view Intergenerational Transmission Direct transmission oParents directly instruct children in criminal behavior oExamples: Using drugs together Instructing/pushing child to fight, “to get respect” Taking child along on criminal ventures Indirect transmission o Children learn from observing their parents’ criminal behavior; parents may be actually trying to hide it from them o Key finding: criminal parents rarely tell children about their criminal activity o Examples: Drunkenness Drug use Money/possessions going missing Awareness of contraband in home Growing up with a Criminal Perspective Criminal parents may also transit anti-social attitudes, values, and habits of mind to their children o“Gotta get what’s yours!” o“Don’t let anyone disrespect you!” o“It ain’t stealin’- they can afford it” oUsing drugs/alcohol to “take the edge off” Family Dynamics Giordano role of emotion in these intergenerational relationships oEmbarrassment oAnger oSadness/isolation Many children of criminals “parent” their parents Identification Lessons (direct/indirect) + emotions identity oKEY: am I like or unlike my parent? “You’re just like your mom/dad” “You’re making the same mistakes I did” o Even with negative emotions towards parents feel fated to a life of crime “I am not my mother/father” oNegative perception of parent drives some to “success” oKEY: success is relative with criminal parents The Child Protection System State Intervention- when and how does it happen? Troxel vs. Granville (2000): affirms fundamental right of parents regarding care, custody, and control of children without unnecessary government interference; ensures due process protections in place Santosky vs. Kramer (1982): affirms right of child to be free from parental abuse and set down guidelines for termination of custody hearing, including right to legal representation Balancing-of-the interests approach oRights of the parents- protections against unfair accusations oRights of the child- protections against abuse and neglect What does this look like in practice? o“Procedures vary from state to state” oChild Protection Services often handles initial investigation o If investigative caseworker substantiates claim, may hand over case to law enforcement Even when compelling evidence found, CPS often involves family in voluntary treatment In extreme cases, the child may be immediately removed from home oParents have right to a hearing oGPS must notify court immediately- 12-24 hours in some states o Advisement hearing: preliminary hearing of facts to determine if removal justified and notify parents of charges against them At the advisement hearing oParents have right to an attorney oIn many states, child has right to own attorney- guardian and litem oParents can admit to charges- consent decree oParents can deny charges pretrial conference Trial o Court decides whether abuse/neglect allegations supported by evidence o Adversarial process o 10 out of 100 cases go to trial Disposition oSocial service agency makes recommendations oWhat will happen to children o What will happen to parents- about 50% of convicted parents serve time Review hearing Abuse, Neglect & Delinquency 14% of men in prison abused as children 36% of women in prison abused as children Children who experience abuse and neglect o59% more likely to be arrested as a juvenile o28% more likely to be arrested as an adult o30% more likely to be arrested for a violent crime Abused children are 25% more likely to experience teen pregnancy 30% of abused children will go on to abuse their own children 80% of 21 year olds who were abused as children met criteria for at least one psychological disorder More than 5 children a day die from abuse 80% of children who die from abuse are under 4 years old