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LING 301: Week 7 Notes

by: DanielleCuller21

LING 301: Week 7 Notes LING 301

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LING 301: Week 7 Notes
Introduction to Lingusitics
Jared Barber
Class Notes
Linguistics, LU, week, 7, notes, ling, 301
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by DanielleCuller21 on Sunday October 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to LING 301 at Liberty University taught by Jared Barber in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Lingusitics in Modern Languages and Linguistics at Liberty University.

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Date Created: 10/16/16
LING 301: Week 7 MORPHOLOGY:  Morpheme: Smallest unit of linguistic meaning   Phoneme: Smallest unit of sound  Free Morpheme: Morpheme that can stand on its own   Bound Morpheme: Morpheme that cannot stand on its own  o (doors) plural (s) is an example of a bound morpheme   Root: Base of a word  Bound Root: root that requires other parts  Affixes: (Pre + suffixes) also infixes and circumfixes   Stem: Something you can attach parts to   Root is not necessarily a stem or vice versa   Morphological Analysis  o 1. Form o 2. Attachment o 3. Meaning o Example of a Word Tree:                                                              Verb                                            Verb                               Affix                          Adjective               Affix                                         Black                 –en                          ­ed  Word Trees: Used because that is how language is subconsciously formed in your mind  Morphological Analysis: o Sing­Singer o Dance­dancer o Teach­teacher o Verb­Noun  Suffix attached to verbs creates nouns that mean “one who _____s” o Singer vs. faster o Fast­faster  An adjective that becomes more of that same adjective  Morphological Analysis:                                                                    Verb                                                  Verb                            Affix                          Adjective               Affix    White                   ­en                   ­er INFLECTION VS. DERIVATION INFLECTION  Inflection: modification of word form to indicate the grammatical subclass   always at the ends; furthest from the roo o Eight Inflectional affixes (all suffixes)  Plurals   (­s)  dog(s)  Possessives  (­‘s)  John(‘s)  Genitives  (­s) third person singular verb  She likes jazz  Past tense  (­ed)  want(ed)  Progressive   (­ing)  go(ing)  Past Participle  (­en/­ed)  tak(en)  Adjective Comparative  (­er)  loud(er)  Superlatives   (­est)  loud(est) DERIVATIONAL AFFIXES:    have content  Derivational affixes usually change the part of speech and happen closer to the root of the word Help­ful­ness (derivational) Help­ful­est (inflection) Affixes:  Rules that don’t change the lexical category   Lexical Category: Part of speech o Example: Bostonian and Boston                                                  Noun                                                                Noun                  Affix    Boston                 ­ian               Build words to have different semantic meaning  Change category of the word (usually) (not always as seen above)  Occurs closer to the root WORD FORMING PROCESS:  Compounding: o Combines 2 or more free forms into a new word  Example: blackbird                                                       Noun                                                                      Affix                   Noun    Black                   bird          i) Stress patterns: stress tends to be more prominent on the first member of the  compound rather than the second a. Example: GREENhouse vs. green HOUSE ii) Headness: The head of a compound is the morpheme that determines the category of  the entire compound      a. Right hand head rule: the category of the compound is usually determined by the  right most morpheme b. Left hand morpheme gets the stress                                                  Noun                                                               Affix                   Noun    Black                   bird          iii) Semantic Patterns a. Endocentric compounds: denotes a subtype of the type dentoed by it’s head i. Example: Spoon­fed (feed with a spoon) ii. Example: teaspoon (spoon for tea) 1. Word can be understood by the sum of it’s parts  b. Exocentric compounds: their meaning does not follow from the meaning of the  parts i. Example: redneck (not a type of neck, but a person) ii. Cannot be understood by sum of its parts; requires context OTHER MORPHOLOGICAL PROCESSES iv) Cliticization: Clitics are short, unstressed words that must be pronounced with  another word a. Example: (‘re) in they’re  v) Internal Change: This process provides grammatical information by changing a  portion of the morpheme  a. Example: run ran, goose geese b. Tense and plurality: inconsistent, no rules, irregular forms vi) Reduplication: a process that copies all (full) or a portion (partial) of the base to mark  a semantic or grammatical contrast a. Example: Indonesian (full reduplication) i. Anak­child ii. Anak ank: children b. Example: Tagalog (partial reduplication)  i. Lakad: walk ii. Lalakad: will walk vii) Stress placement/stress shift: a. A change in the stress placement that causes a change in the lexical category of a  word b. Example: record (verb) RECord (noun) viii) Suppltion: a. This process provides grammatical information by changing the entire morpheme  i. Example: go went ix) Conversion (zero derivation):  a. A process that assigns an existing word to a different lexical category  i. Example: butter (noun) (to) butter (verb) x) Clipping: a. A process that shortens a word by removing one or more syllables  i. Examples: Condominium Condo xi) Blending:  a. A process that creates a new word by combining portions of two existing words i. Examples:  1. Brunch= lunch + breakfast 2. Spam = spiced + ham 3. Smog = smoke + fog


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