Microbiology 251 Lecture 19 and 20 Book Notes
Microbiology 251 Lecture 19 and 20 Book Notes BMB 251
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Julianna Sickafus on Sunday October 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BMB 251 at Pennsylvania State University taught by SCOTT LINDNER in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Molecular and Cell Biology I in Microbiology at Pennsylvania State University.
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Date Created: 10/16/16
Microbiology 251 Notes from pages 369-379, 380-383, 384-396 Lectures 19 and 20 pg. 369-379, 380-383 -cell types in multicellular organisms are different because they synthesize different sets of RNA -processes that are common to all cells (and their enzymes) are translated in all cells -ie: DNA pol -some RNAs and proteins are detected in specialized cells -a cell is capable of altering its gene expression pattern in response to extracellular cues -nearly all transcription regulators make contact with major groove -wider -displays more molecular features -cis regulatory sequences -recognized by transcription regulators -depicted as logos -transcriptional factors bind with lower affinity to nucleosome -cis sequence may be internally facing -conformation change induced by binding of transcription factors is resisted by tight wrapping around histone -ends of nucleosome “breathe” -better access point for transcription factors than tightly packed center -binding of one transcription factor allows easier access for the next -repressor -blocks access of RNA pol to promoter -when active, gene is not transcribed -activator -work on promoters than can only marginally bind and position RNA pol -made functional by activators that bind to nearby cis sequences -can increase rate of transcription initiation by as much as 1000x pg. 384-396 -interaction between DNA bound transcription factors and RNA pol are almost always indirect in eukaryotes -involve intermediate proteins -gene control region -expanse of DNA involved in regulating and initiating transcription of a eukaryotic gene -long non coding RNAs -lncRNAs operons in eukaryotes are rare -each gene is regulated individually -each gene is different in detail than others -eukaryotic transcription regulators usually assemble in groups at cis regulatory sequence -coactivators/co-repressors recognize transcription factor itself, not sequence -eukaryotic DNA is tightly condensed so it must be unraveled -covalent histone modification -nucleosome remodeling -nucleosome removal -histone replacement -coactivators are attracted to site bringing necessary substrates for these processes -after transcription regulator dissociates, chromatin modifications are rapidly reversed -transcriptional synergy -activator proteins working together produce a transcription rate that is much higher than the sum of the transcription rates working alone -transcription repressors can depress rate of transcription or shut off genes -eukaryotic repressors do not directly compete with RNA pol for access to DNA -unlike prokaryotic cells -usually bring co-repressors to DNA -insulator -form loops of chromatin -loops hold gene and its control region -prevents spilling over into other genes
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