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Biology Chapter Four Part 1 Notes

by: Mariah Viles

Biology Chapter Four Part 1 Notes BIO 100

Marketplace > Missouri State University > BIO 100 > Biology Chapter Four Part 1 Notes
Mariah Viles
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About this Document

These notes include everything from the start of chapter four to where we stopped last Wednesday in lecture. It has definitions, examples, and my way of understanding the material.
Biological Science for Educators
Tara K Herring
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mariah Viles on Sunday October 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 100 at Missouri State University taught by Tara K Herring in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views.


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Date Created: 10/16/16
Unit 1: The Functioning Organism 1 Chapter Four: Matter, Energy, and Life -All plant activities require matter and energy via photosynthesis which uses sunlight to make sugars -Organisms are made of atoms, molecules, and macromolecules -Carbohydrates -Proteins -Lipids -Nucleic Acids -Digestion involves the breakdown of macromolecules into smaller molecules for absorption -Metabolism- the sum of all chemical reactions occurring in an organism -the making of large molecules to small molecules and vice versa Basics About Photosynthesis -Two stages: -Light Dependent Reactions-needs light to complete reaction -Light Independent Reactions- Does not need light to complete reaction -Both stages take place in chloroplasts- contain chlorophyll *Chloroplast is the doughnut. Chlorophyll (choro”fill”) is the jelly filling.* -Chloroplasts have 3 membrane systems -Inner -Outer -Thylakoid Membranes- “pancake” membranes in which chlorophyll is held and sun energy is captured -Stoma- The solution that surrounds the thylakoids. An enzyme-rich soup in which sugars are made -ATP- Charged, 3 phosphates -ADP- Not charged, 2 phosphates -Light-dependent reactions convert sunlight into ATP in the thylakoids -Plants absorb light using two photosystems (I and II) which are “lightning rod” areas in which sun energy is easily absorbed by chlorophyll molecules and other pigments -Each photosystem has a reactive chlorophyll molecule at its center that receives energy absorbed by all surrounding pigment molecules -In this reactive molecule, an electron is excited (reaching a higher energy level) by light energy Light Dependent Reaction Unit 1: The Functioning Organism 2 -An excited electron from PS2 is transferred to an embedded electron carrier protein in the thylakoids which then pass the electron to PS1 -PS2 then receives a replacement electron from a water molecule which is broken during this process. - Excited electrons from PS1 are accepted by NADP+ (an electron carrying molecule) which also gains a H+ form the stroma to become NADPH -As electrons move between the two photosystems along an electron carrier protein chain, small amounts of energy are continuously being lost Non Scientific Description Step 1: Sunlight hits chloroplast molecules, molecules then give the energy to PS2 who gets so “excited” it gives off an electron. That electron is carried to the PS1 through the thylakoids Step 2: PS2 received a replacement electron from the water molecule Step 3: NADP+ pick up electron and H+ from the stroma


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