Ch. 6 Notes
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Popular in Chemistry
This 1 page Class Notes was uploaded by Annie Estes on Sunday October 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CH 271 at Whitworth University taught by Dr. Flay in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Organic Chemistry in Chemistry at Whitworth University.
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Date Created: 10/16/16
Ch. 6 Enthalpy For a bond to break, e- in the bonding MO must receive energy from its surroundings (endothermic process), through kinetic energy transfer. (H) enthalpy is used to measure this exchange of energy Energy required to break covalent bonds via hemolytic cleavage is called the bond dissociation energy Most reactions involve breaking several bonds, and forming several new bonds. Delta H naught indicates whether the system decreased in energy (negative) or increased in energy (positive). Exothermic: delta H = negative values, so heat/energy is given off by “system” to the surroundings Endothermic: delta H = positive values, so heat/energy is received (absorbed) by the system, from its surroundings Nucleophiles and electrophiles o Will represent around 95% of all reactions in this course (radical reactions and pericyclic reactions) o Polar reactions involve participation of ions (strong partial positive or partial negative). o Electron rich centers: nucleophiles (full negative charge, or strong partial) Lewis base o Electron deficient centers: electrophiles (full positive charge, or strong partial) Lewis acid o Nucleophiles: electron rich, capable of donating a pair of e-s o Electrophiles: electron deficient atom capable of accepting a pair of e-s (similar to lewis acid) o **oxygen and nitrogen will often function as nucleophile because of lone pairs** Polarizability o Describes the ability of atoms to distribute its electron density unevenly in response to external influences Best leaving groups are neutral molecules and very stable ions (like bromine/iodine)
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