Psychology 111, Week 3 notes
Psychology 111, Week 3 notes Psychology 111
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Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sara Auger on Sunday October 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psychology 111 at Emory University taught by Dr. Delawalla in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology II in Psychology (PSYC) at Emory University.
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Date Created: 10/16/16
Psychobiology Wednesday, August 31, 2016 11:26 AM Overview o Building blocks of the mind: Neurons and how they communicate (neurotransmitters) o Systems that build the mind: Functions of Parts of the nervous system o Supporting Player: the slowest communicating Endocrine system o Neuroplasticity Everything psychological- every mood, urge, and feeling- is biological o Humans are biopsychosocial systems in which biological, psycho, and social-cultural factors interact to influence behavior o The neuron is the basic building block is the nervous system. Neuronal communication facilitates everything an organism does Neuron: has regular cell organelles +axon (send) and dendrites (receive) Axon branches into terminal branches to form connections with other cells. Some axons are covered with myelin sheath (speed up velocity of message) 86 Billion neurons in the adult brain. Neural Communication Action Potential: the electrical signaling mechanism Electrical charge traveling down the axon Ions moving across the cell membrane Naturally the inside of the cell is negative and outside is positive. When AP is produced, that briefly changes. Once AP moves, it repolarizes AP only moves in direction down the axon. Nothing PHYSICAL is passing along the axon (like the wave) When does the neuron decide to send an action potential? When it reaches the threshold of stimulation. The neurons receive signals from other neurons; some are telling it to fire and some are saying not to. When the threshold is reached, (voltage) the AP starts moving; when "go" outweighs "don't go" by certain amount A stronger stimulus doesn't produce a stronger action potential. AKA all or none response The signal has to get over the synapse between neurons. Uses neurotransmitters. Chemical substances that can cross the synaptic gap. Synthesized and stored in presynaptic neuron. Bond with receptors on postsynaptic neuron and transfer electrical impulse but by chemical means. After they bond and communicate, the neurons have to leave so they don't continue to bind and communicate. Reuptake --> pre-synaptic neuron takes them back up; protein molecule binds to membrane Enzymes come break them down so they're inactive Might fuse away Information flows within a neuron with electrical signals (ions) Information flows between neurons with chemical signals Alternating sequence of electrical and chemical signaling underlies all of our behavior Most behaviors are produced by groups of hundreds or thousands of neurons How do neurotransmitters affect behavior? Different types of neurotransmitters affects the behaviors we have. Neurotransmitters travel designated pathways in the brain and can influence specific behaviors and emotions. GABA: major inhibitory neurotransmitter Gintamate: major excitatory neurotransmitter How drugs etc. alter neurotransmitters Agonist: molecule that increases a neurotransmitter's action Ex: most antidepressants are serotonin agonists Antagonist: blocking a natural neurotransmitter's action Ex: most antipsychotics are dopamine antagonists Types of Neurons Sensory neurons: carry info IN from the bodies tissues and sensory receptors to the CNS for processing (millions) In PNS Motor neurons: carry instructions OUT from the CNS to the body's tissues (millions) In PNS Interneurons: in the brain and spinal cord; process information between the sensory input and motor output (billions) In CNS Peripheral Nervous System: o Autonomic: controls involuntary movement; glands and organs Sympathetic (arousing); survive in emanate danger. Body diverts energy from parasympathetic. Parasympathetic (calming); rest and digest o Somatic: controls voluntary movement of skeletal muscles Central Nervous System o Brain Primate (newest, most specialized) Mammal Reptile (oldest part of brain; brain stem)9 Brainstem and Thalamus Oldest and innermost region (bs) Medulla (at base) controls heart rate and respiration. Basic survival. Reticular formation: nerve network running through b stem and thalamus -0Important for arousal (wake up, go to sleep) Thalamus: sensory relay center All senses (except smell) are routed through here before cortex Cerebellum: coordinate voluntary movement (playing a sport) and enables nonverbal learning/memory Limbic (Border) System Located between least and most advanced brain structures Amgdala regulates things like fear and aggression The formation of episodic memories (Hippocampus) Hypothalamus: want center; food and sex Works with endocrine system (hormones) Hypothalamus communicates with insulin released by pancreas to deal with hunger Hormones work with parts of nervous system to enable certain behaviors "slow but sure" message center Travel through blood stream as messages to have an effect on brain. Pituitary gland is in brain and regulates all of endocrine system. Regulated by hypothalamus Cerebral Cortex Most advanced, outermost Lets us talk, sing, plan, create, etc. Two hemispheres Each hemisphere has four lobes: frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal Frontal Lobe: speaking, muscle movements, planning ahead, making judgements Frontal lobe is important for personality; damage changes personality by hurting ability to inhibit emotions and impulses. Don't fully mature until around 25 Parietal Lobes: sensory cortex is here Occipital lobe: Important for visual processing Temporal Lobe: auditory processing. 20+ billion neurons 300 billion synapses Frontal Lobe Function Phineas Gage: dude that got rod up his eye and it jabbed his frontal lobe and made him a douche Frontal Lobe puts brakes on basic wants of sex, anger, hunger, etc. Motor and Sensory Cortices: Motor Cortex: located at the back of the frontal lobe (sends motor commands) Sensory cortex: located at the front of the parietal lobe (receives sensory information) Both have body maps and are laid out the same way. Organized so areas with high sensitivity and areas requiring precise control occupy the most cortical space. (ex: fingers have more space than back) We know all this bc someone was doing surgery on epilepsy and when he hit a certain part with electricity they gave feedback. People were awake and participating Sensory functions of the Cortex: Sensory strip of the parietal lobe deals with information from touch stimuli The occipital lobe processes visual information Auditory in occipital lobe Left over area is association areas. Whole Brain Association Activity: Requires complex activities which require communication among association areas across the brain such as: Memory Language Attention Association areas are found in all four lobes In the frontal lobes, they enable judgement, planning, and processing of new memories Make sense of sensory information you get Corpus Callosum Large band of fibers running between brain's two hemispheres; each hemisphere controls opposite side of body. Makes two hemispheres work together and communicate with other brain half and other body side and visual spheres and puts it together. Lateralization: Left hemisphere: thoughts and logic, language: definition and words, pieces and details Right hemisphere: feelings and intuition; language: tone, inflection, context; wholes, including the self Both processing and producing Damage to one part impacts the way you think Split brain studies: Some people's corpus callosum isn't functioning They can do two different things at once Drawback: they don't have coordinated functions (ex: they can't button buttons) Neuroplasticity Ability of the brain to be changes by environment and/or experience. Can occur in childhood and to varying degrees in adulthood. Ex: exposed to multiple languages as a child. Changes your brain shape. Ex: rewired areas after brain damage The brain is most plastic when it's young Very few drawbacks, some learning difficulties But brain never repairs damaged neurons Can form new connections, reorganize, reassign brain areas to new functions Sometimes forms new neurons through neurogenesis Happens in hippocampus
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