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LING 1, Week 4 notes part 1

by: Courtney Goffney

LING 1, Week 4 notes part 1 LING 1

Courtney Goffney
GPA 4.0

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About this Document

Part 1 of "Phonology" chapter. Do not copy.
Introduction to Study of Language
Dr. Torrence
Class Notes
Linguistics, ling, TORRENCE, WEEK4, booknotes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Courtney Goffney on Monday October 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to LING 1 at University of California - Los Angeles taught by Dr. Torrence in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Study of Language in Linguistics at University of California - Los Angeles.


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Date Created: 10/17/16
10/17/16 th DISCLAIMERS: Thesthreferenths are based off the 9 edition, but the information works for both 9 and 10 editions regardless. Please DO NOT copy this for your own homework or notes. Phonology (p. 267): study of sound patterns in language  Pronunciation of Morphemes (p. 267) – morphemes pronounced differently depending on context. o Pronunciation of Plurals (same allomorphs apply to possessive and third-person nouns)  Some plurals nouns end with [z] (which is called the variant aka allomorph), a voiced alveolar fricative (ex: cab => cabs)  Some end with [s] (variant aka allomorph), a voiceless alveolar fricative (ex: cap => caps)  Some end with [əz] (variant aka allomorph) (ex: bus => buses, badge => badges)  Some don’t conform to one form group, and are individually memorized (ex: child => children; ox =>oxen; sheep => sheep)  When deciding which plural form is appropriate, look for minimal pairs: two words with different meanings, but identical sounds except for one sound segment. In plural allomorphs like [z] and [s], often final sound segment responsible for the difference. (ex: bag/back, cat/mat, bag/badge)  Minimal pairs are able to have diff. allomorphs  Plural words with [əz] have sibilant segments.  Plural words with [z] or [s] have nonsibilant segments. o Morphophonemic rules: phonological rules that shape a plural morpheme and other certain morpheme’s phonetics.  Because most rules each apply to large group of words, rather than to individual, young kids able to learn lang in short period. o Additional Allomorphs  Past tense forms parallel plural forms  Regular past tense morphemes use the allomorphs [d] (ex: grabbed), [t] (ex: kissed), [əd] (ex: gloated).  Phonemes (p.273): [the abstract mental representations of] Phonological Units of Lang  Sensed in the mind, but aren’t heard/spoken  Associated with an allophone: corresponding sound to the phoneme  Use // to enclose phonemes, and [] to enclose allophones and phones. o Vowel Nasalization in English as Illustration of Allophones  English oral vowels occur before non-nasal consonants; nasalized vowels ONLY occur before nasal consonants.  Nasalization is inessential, because words, even if pronounced incorrectly with/without nasalization, may sound differently, but can still be comprehended by a speaker of that lang. Thus, we aren’t aware of nasalization.  English has about twelve vowel phonemes.  Phone: certain pronunciation of a phoneme.  A group with same phoneme are the allophones of that phoneme.


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