INR2001 Weeks 7-8 Notes
INR2001 Weeks 7-8 Notes INR 2001
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jennifer Klammer on Monday October 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to INR 2001 at University of Florida taught by Richard Nolan in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Introduction to International Relations in Political Science at University of Florida.
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Date Created: 10/17/16
INR2001 INR2001 10.03.16 • Imperialism: domination of one nation over another by political and economic factors -Not all empires are European, but lasting effects of the European empires are significant -The ability to navigate across oceans, trade, and technological advances made European powers empires. Ø Used trade to their advantage to take over through such advancement -Empires arose for many different reasons. Ø Some wanted territory and total control Ø Some wanted small colonies being less concerned with large regional control • France and Britain -became major figures as imperial powers after Spanish influence fades -British empire becomes most influential after French decline Ø Britain becomes influential in language, religion, and governance -begins to fail after WWI • End of Empires -Britain and France collapse in different mays Ø Britain has a peaceful process and leaves behind some administrative capacity Ø France has a violent experience -The US had few countries under their imperialism, but still had MAJOR influence • Legacy of the Colonial Period -Economic consequences: colonies used as source of raw materials and market for manufactured goods -Political consequences: borders drawn in ways that let to conflict -Positives: infrastructure, education systems, etc 10.05.16 • The Cold War -Important because it represented bipolarity between the USA and Soviet Union -Introduced the concepts of potential for nuclear war and apocalyptic disaster -Bipolarity: two large superpowers -Contest between them and would define global history for the next 45 years From a realist standpoint, the two nations are destined to conflict, BUT say it was Britain and the USA, they would of cooperated. USA and Soviet Union had contrasting worldviews, hence the conflict. Etc, communism. • Different Interpretation -Standard historical view: sees origins of cold war in expansionist Soviet Union -Revisionist View: sees origins of cold war driven by US as a reaction to Soviet actions that were necessary after WWII. *Soviet Untion didn’t want bad similar WWII things to happen to them again. *US wanted to defend themselves but they were seen as hostile due to the development of weaponry. As a result, the Soviet Union built weaponry. Turned into a giant misconception of hostility due to realist means of protecting themselves. • Was anyone right? Was it all a giant misunderstanding? Could there have been a more cooperative order in the world? • After WWII US and Soviet Union wanted to create an agreement between big powers to prevent conflict (UN) but it obsviously didn’t work • Containment -basic theory that powered the US’s cold war foreign policy -George Kennan -basic idea: soviet union is opportunistic. Deny them opportunities so that they cannot expand -USA cannot show weakness. If they are weak, Soviet Union expands. Big nono 10.10.16 • NSC-68: national security council document -Major defining document in the US in 1950 -Globalization of Truman Doctrine -**Focused on protecting Western hemisphere while being able to slow down any advance by the USSR** - provide aide to allies and keep supply lines open -Containment was a political strategy=> needed to be backed by military power • Implications of NSC-68 -would need to expand military and intelligence capabilities -need allies and bases around the world -containment would be as much a military strategy as it was political -big focus on Asia after China goes communist and Korean War v Led to a lot of actions in the developing world due to a competition for influence v Especially important as France and Britain’s colonies became independent v US would not tolerate states falling under Soviet influence, so they attempted to prevent. USSR did the same vice-versa for US. Power struggle. • Nuclear Weapons -US monopoly for early cold war -changed with USSR nuclear weapons in 1948 -Eisenhower: rely on strategy of massive retaliation Ø Fight back when needed. Defensive strategy -Flexible response to be able to deal with Soviet Union on variety of levels Ø not just nuclear weapons: diplomatic methods, more peaceful, less intense weaponry, etc -disparity in nuclear weapons leads USSR to make up the difference by placing some in Cuba US advanced farther than USSR out of panic, but USSR put in Cuba as a fear tactic • Cuban Missile Crisis -USSR behind the US in missile tech and a number of weapons -US had some advantage in placement of missiles near USSR -When Cuba goes communist in 1959, USSR sees an opportunity to target all of the US -US finds out what is happening in 1962 leading to a stand off -Kennedy faced bad options: do nothing or risk war that could destroy world - results drove both sides to improve communication and avoid confrontations like this in the future • Nuclear Weapons -massive retaliation and flexible response -nuclear weapons ultimately a political tool; a deterrence as a psychological game played in the opponent’s head -What makes a threat credible? -Later mutually assured destruction becomes the defining term- based on second strike capability -purpose was to make war unwinnable and therefore unthinkable Competition between US and USSR led to attempts to control growth and spread weapons (arms control) **Non- proliferation treaty (NPT) 1968-f fundamental bargain between nuclear and non nuclear states Ø Non- nuclear states would not get nuclear weapons Ø Nuclear states would promise to never attack non nuclear states, and would help harmonize nuclear power 10.12.16 The Vietnam War • Importance of reputation and credibility • Changes much of what is to come in the next 20 years politically Ø US is hesitant to get involved in conflicts. More proxys. • Illustrates how states get pulled into conflicts Logic of Escalation • Johnson was confronted with alternatives: let South fall, escalate war, or air campaign • Once a choice is made, you need to follow it up Ø LEADS TO ESCALATION - Johnson chose to use the air campaign option=> leads to more tension=> new ways to handle foreign policy (google Vietnam causes and shit) Vietnam • Why was Vietnam important? • Tet offensive 1968 as turning point (North Vietnam using strong guerilla forces in South Vietnam against stationed Americans). Showed weaknesses. Politically changed American opinions of the Vietnam War • Political victory, but a military loss • Role of media: more broadcasting to Americans. Able to see the conflict truthfully, leading to question why US should even be involved. • Defines a generation in terms of thinking about conflict and foreign policy • Set up path to new way dealing with USSR Détente (reduce tension; peaceful approach) • Kissigner as an archtietect: • Balance of power- maintain stability • Based in realism, not about morality or democracy • Why the focus on stability? • Balance of power – play states off each other • What state does the US want to play against the USSR? • Designed to push the USSR to want better relationship with the US • “peaceful co-existance” • leads to more arms control – limit and reduce numbers • Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) • Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty • Helsinki Accords • Did it work? • Better communication but USSR saw it as opportunity to expand influence • Still, détente managed superpower competition • End of détente with Carter •
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