Behaviorism Continued - Modern Theories
Behaviorism Continued - Modern Theories 2010
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bri M on Monday October 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 2010 at Clemson University taught by Fred Switzer in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 10/17/16
Behaviorism Continued - Modern Theories ❖ VIE (expectancy) Theory ➢ Expectancy: effort leads to performance ➢ Instrumentality: performance leads to outcome ■ Based off of subjective probability ■ “If I write a decent paper...I will get an A” ➢ Valence: value of the outcome ■ I.e. how much is an A worth to you in this class? ■ This will be different for everyone ➢ Good to motivate someone ➢ Your level of motivation is the multiplication of these three elements ➢ Motivation is based on your belief of future events ➢ Each element is a subjective probability ■ Your belief that something is going to happen ■ You have to have some of all three to be motivated ➢ Ex: you are a manager and have to motivate some people ❖ VIE Problems ➢ Multiple E → I pathways ➢ MUltiple I → O pathways ➢ Human cognitive capacity and a combining rule ➢ Unstable V’s: hedonic prediction ■ Peoples prediction about how good or bad you will feel are not stable ■ The reality and prediction are somewhat different ❖ Goal-setting theory ➢ Goals DO work but: ■ Acceptance ● You have to persuade someone to accept the goal ■ Difficulty ● Goal should be pretty hard ■ Specificity ● Goals have to be specific ■ Feedback ● You need to know if you are making progress towards that goal or not ➢ Goal orientation → some people want to do it just to do it...some people want to reach a goal to show people that they can reach that goal ❖ Relationship between VIE and goal-setting ➢ Vie sets direction and goal-setting begins the process ❖ Modern version of Goal-setting ➢ Self-regulation theory ■ The basic idea.. ■ Motivation is based on (nested) hierarchy of goals with feedback loops ➢ Velocity and affect: ■ Current velocity vs. “velocity referent” ● Generates negative or positiv fect ■ Velocity - how fast are you making progress for your goal? ■ Affect - how good or bad you feel (positive/negative emotional feeling) ■ Velocity referent - a target speed for ex: finding your car keys ● May be different from person to person ■ If your velocity is too low and will create a negative affect ■ If your velocity is high you will generate positive affect ➢ Changes in velocity (“acceleration”) ■ Generates negative or positive affect ■ If you are ahead on a paper that is due in a week you will generate a positive affect ❖ Side issues in motivation ➢ Social influence processes; ■ Reciprocation, social proof, etc. ● Ex: if you do me a favor I feel like I have to do you a favor ➢ Intrinsic vs. extrinsic motivation ■ Are rewards bad? - control? ● Yes if they are perceived as control ■ The “overjustification effect” ➢ Judgement and decision-making ■ Heuristics ■ Prospect theory: “losses loom larger than gains” ● Ex: if you find $20 on the ground you feel good ● Ex: if you are the person who lost $20 you feel horrible ◆ The person who lost money feels worse than the person who gained money (even though they are experiencing a positive affect) ❖ Emotions ➢ We are pretty sure we have identified all of the emotions ➢ Love and joy ■ Positive ➢ Anger, sadness and fear ■ negative
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