Psychology 111, Week 8
Psychology 111, Week 8 Psychology 111
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sara Auger on Monday October 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psychology 111 at Emory University taught by Dr. Delawalla in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology II in Psychology (PSYC) at Emory University.
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Date Created: 10/17/16
Learning Theories Wednesday, October 5, 2016 11:30 AM Overview o Classical conditioning o Operant conditioning o Cognitive Learning o Social learning theory What is learning? Process of acquiring new and relatively enduring information or behaviors. Not like head knowledge Associative learning o Classical conditioning Learning to link two stimuli in a way that helps us anticipate an event to which we have a reaction Pavlov and dogs, stumbled into associative learning. Dogs would salivate when seeing food bowl, because they knew it meant food, which naturally causes salivation Neutral stimulus A stimulus that doesn't produce a response before conditioning (bell) Unconditioned response: an unlearned, naturally occurring response to an unconditioned stimulus Unconditioned stimulus: stimulus that unconditionally, naturally, produces a response Neutral stimulus can come about .5 seconds before the U.S. NS and US must be repeatedly paired during acquisition phase (training phase) Strength of conditioned response grows with conditioning Extinction refers to the diminishing of a conditioned response If food stops occurring with bell, salivation at bell stops Spontaneous recovery: following a rest period, presenting the tone might lead to a return of the conditioned response despite a lack of further conditioning Generalization and discrimination Generalize to related stimuli ---> rubbing predicts food, scratching probably does to Discrimination --> one pitch of a bell means food, another pitch elicited no response A basic form of learning that applies to all species Wide range of possibilities Provided a basis for Watson's ideas that humans emotions and behaviors, though biologicall influences, are mainly conditioned responses Applications of classical conditioning Watson is an asshole and made a 9-month-old baby have a phobia of rats Made a loud, obnoxious, scary sound every time he saw rat Albert acquired fear of rats and generalized it to all soft, furry things He was really proud of this and said all you can manipulate people entirely Subconscious Conditioning Men were shown pictures of cars that included a hot girl Some were shown pictures of same car without the girl Men who saw car with women rated car as better, faster, etc. When asked if they think they like the car because of the girl, they all said "no that's ridiculous." Slasher movies Pairing of scantily clad women paired with violence Sexual arousal (UR) to semi-nude women (US) Violence (NS) paired with semi-nude women (US) Violence could become the CS that also elicits sexual arousal (CR) o Operant conditioning Changing behavior choices in response to consequences Not pairing two stimuli Ex: a waiter at a restaurant may smile more because he knows this gets him more tips Act of chosen behavior is followed by a reward or punishment (makes it more or less likely) Reinforced behavior is MORE likely to be tried again Punished behavior is LESS likely to be chosen in the future Thorndike's Law of Effect: Placed cats in a puzzle box, they were rewarded with food and freedom when they solved it They got much better at solving it to seek the reward Skinner: Behavioral Control Expanded on Thorndike's theory, wondered How can we more carefully measure the effect of consequences on behavior? What else can creatures be taught to do by controlling consequences? What happens when we change the timing of reinforcement? Envisioned societies where desired behaviors were shaped by consequences. Shaping behavior Guiding a creature toward the behavior by rewarding behavior that comes closer and closer to the desired behavior Ex: teaching a puppy to play fetch. You throw a ball, he brings back a stick. Still reward it. By rewarding this behavior, the behavior is strengthened. Discrimination: the ability to become more and more specific in what situations trigger a response Shaping can increase discrimination if reinforcement only comes for certain discriminative stimuli For example, dogs, rats, and even spiders can be trained to search for very specific smells. How often should we reinforce? Skinner experimented with the effects of giving reinforcements in different patterns or schedules to determine what worked best to establish and maintain a target behavior. In continuous reinforcement (giving a reward after the target every single time) the subject acquires the desired behavior quickly. In partial/Intermittent reinforcement (giving rewards part of the time) the target behavior takes longer to be established, but persists longer without reward. Some reinforcements are based on interval of time, some reinforcements are based on number of instances that a behavior was displayed. Fixed Interval schedule: happens every so often, very predictable Variable Interval Schedule: unpredictably often, about every so often, but you don't know exactly when Fixed ratio schedule: every so many behaviors Variable ratio schedule: after an unpredictable number of behaviors Effectiveness of reinforcement schedules: Fixed ratio: high rate of responding initially Variable ratio: high, consistent responding, even if reinforcement stops; resists extinction (ex: slot machine) Fixed Interval: slow, unsustained responding Variable Interval: slow, consistent responding (playing lucky lotto numbers every day) Types of reinforcers: Primary: unlearned; innately reinforcing stimuli Ex: food; freedom Conditioned: secondary, gains power through association with primary reinforcer Ex: money Immediate: occurs right after a behavior Delayed: involves time delay between desired response of and delivery of reward Humans have the ability to link a consequence to a behavior even if they aren't linked sequentially Shows cognitive aspects are present Punishment Opposite of reinforcement, makes a certain behavior less likely in the future Positive punishment: you add something unpleasant (ex: spankings, chores) Negative punishment: you take away something pleasant/desired (ex: no tv) Not "good" or "bad", but "add" and "take away" Can use them based on what your goals are Punishments are usually only effective when its in a natural setting and they're a natural consequence Ex: jumping on couch and gets hurt Operant conditioning helps you avoid danger Artificially: getting spanked for jumping on couch, not as effective Severity of punishment isn’t as helpful as making punishments certain and immediate. Problems with physical punishment: Punished behaviors may simply be suppressed and restart when punishment is over Instead of learning behaviors, child may learn to discriminate among situations, and avoid those in which punishments occur Instead of behaviors, child might learn an attitude of fear or hatred, which can interfere with learning. This can generalize to fear/hatred of all adults or many settings. Physical punishment models aggression and control as a method of dealing with problems. Application: phobias Acquired through classical conditioning Maintained through operant conditioning Claustrophobic person avoids elevators Takes one, feels anxious (aversive stimulus) Avoidance behavior is strengthened through negative reinforcement o Biological Influences on Conditioning For classical conditioning, ideally NS precedes the US by about .5 seconds Food aversions can be acquired even if the UR (nausea) does not immediately follow the NS. Ex: food poisoning Delayed association does not work for other pairings Garcia's Taste Aversion Studies in Rats Unfamiliar taste --> delayed illness --> avoidance of that food Unfamiliar taste --> immediate shock --> no avoidance of that food Preparedness model of Phobias Humans are biologically prepared to learn to fear objects and situations that threatened the survival of the species throughout evolutionary history Common phobias Biological preparedness leads to rapid acquisition and high resistance to extinction Monkeys raised in captivity don't fear snakes, monkeys in wild do If you show them a video of a monkey being scared of a snake, captive monkeys develop fear of snakes If you repeat above with a flower, captive monkeys don't get scared of flowers People differ in their sensitivity to rewards and punishments Some people are less deterred by possible punishments Risk-takers Consistently doing a behavior because it's rewarded decreases intrinsic motivation Ex: if a kid receives money every time he does HW, chores, etc., he is less likely to be motivated intrinsically Cognitive learning o Acquiring new behaviors and info through observation and information rather than direct experience Observing events or behaviors Using language and skills to acquire information o Knowing that our reactions were caused by conditioning gives us the option to break it. o In fixed interval reinforcement, animals do more target behaviors around reinforcement time because they're expecting reward Expectation plays a role in humans abilities to act in certain ways o Learning from others Modeling the behavior of others serves as a model, an example of how to respond to a situation; we may try this model regardless of reinforcement Vicarious conditioning: experienced indirectly; meand are choices are affected as we see others get rewarded or punished Badura Bobo Doll experiment Have kids observe adults and then record how children behave in a situation Sees aggression, kids are aggressive Sees nonaggressive, they aren't aggressive Behaviors csan be learned through observation and without reinforcement
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