NHM 361 Carbohydrate Metabolism Part 2
NHM 361 Carbohydrate Metabolism Part 2 NHM 361
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Vanessa Notetaker on Monday October 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NHM 361 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Amy Cameron Ellis in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Nutritional Biochemistry in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 10/17/16
NHM 361 Carbohydrate Metabolism 10/14 Glycolysis The glycolysis pathway is regulated by feedback inhibition Hexokinase o Catalyzes the first step of glycolysis Glucose glucose-6-phosphate o Inhibited by high concentrations of glucose-6-phosphate Phosphofructokinase o Catalyzes conversion of fructose-6-phophate fructose-1,6- bisphosphate o Inhibited by high concentrations of ATP and citrate (main component in citric acid cycle) Pyruvate kinase o Catalyzes the last step in glycolysis 3-phosphoenolpyruvate pyruvate Inhibited by high concentrations of ATP Fate of Pyruvate Once glucose is converted to pyruvate the resulting pyruvate is either o Oxidized to Acetyl-CoA During aerobic conditions o Reduced to lactate During anaerobic conditions Fate of Pyruvate with Oxygen Oxidation to Acetyl CoA Occurs under aerobic conditions Occurs in the mitochondria of the cell Most of the Acetyl CoA will be completely oxidized to CO in t2e citric acid cycle + NAD is regenerated when NADH transfers its electrons to O in the 2lectron transport chain Fate of Pyruvate Without Oxygen Reduction to lactate Occurs in the cytosol during anaerobic conditions Skeletal muscles may undergo periods of low oxygen where lactate is produced NADH gives electrons and H back to pyruvate for reduction In yeast when there is no oxygen pyruvate is fermented into ethanol Oxidation of Pyruvate to Acetyl CoA Oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl CoA is catalyzed by the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex The reaction is irreversible Acetyl CoA can enter the citric acid cycle The citric acid cycle is a series of 8 reactions that take place in the mitochondrial matrix The Citric Acid Cycle The citric acid cycle is also called the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) Also called the Krebs cycle after the scientist Sir Hans Krebs who discovered it Good acronym to remember all the steps Citrate Is A Sour Substance For Most Organisms Citrate, Isocitrate, α-ketoglutarate, succinyl CoA, Succinate, Fumarate, Malate, Oxaloacetate