Respiratory Adaptations AL 3500
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jeni Erickson on Monday October 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to AL 3500 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Michael Godfrey in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see scientific basics of coaching 1 in Athletic Leadership at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 10/17/16
Respiratory Adaptations Pulmonary Respiration (also called breathing… you can answer a question saying either one) o The ventilation and exchange of gases in the lungs. o The primary purpose of the respiratory system is to provide a means of gas exchange between the external environment and the body. First step: ventilation (moving air into and out of lungs) Second step: movement of oxygen into the blood Diffusion: since oxygen tension in the lungs is greater than in the blood, oxygen diffuses into the blood. This means there is much more oxygen in lungs then blood, so it needs to even out into the blood. Respiratory system also plays a role in the regulation of acid- base system (lactic acid) during heavy exercise. This is when we talked about getting oxygen into the blood as fast as possible so that we could get it to muscles and they can contract. o Remember metabolism o The quicker this occurs, the less time we are in glycolysis and the less lactic acid is produced… therefore, you can exercise and a higher level or a longer period of time. Two zones in the respiratory system. o Conducting Zone All of the anatomical structures that pass air into the body Nose, mouth, trachea, alveoli, bronchi, etc. Serves as a passageway Humidifies (depending on if its cool or hot outside) and filters. o Respiratory Zone Gas exchange (the lungs have about 300 million alveoli) Total surface area available for diffusion is about the size of a tennis court. You can kill your alveoli, but they cannot be reproduced. Two phases o Inspiration Most important muscle of inspiration is the diaphragm (skeletal muscle) It is voluntary and involuntary The only skeletal muscle essential for life because it is why we breathe. Dominant muscle performing respiratory work during normal quiet breathing. o Expiration: Passive during normal quiet breathing There is no muscular effort required Expiration only becomes active with exercise Aspects that limit air getting into the body o The diameter of the airway is the most important factor for getting air into the body. Asthma Illness: pneumonia Asthma and illness are the biggest ones! Mucus: this lines the respiratory system, but sometimes it increases and clogs the airway Smoking Pollution, etc. Lung Capacity o Tital volume: the volume of air that you normally breathe in and out (normal quiet breathing) o Inspiratory Reserve Volume: when you start exercising, it is the max amount of air you can consume (breathing in) after you hit tital volume. o Expiratory Reserve Volume: when you start exercising, it is the max amount of air you can breathe out after you hit the peak of tital volume. o Total lung capacity: the total volume of air in the lungs o Vital capacity: the maximal volume of air that can be inspired and expired in on deep breath. This can tell you about health history. The lower your vital capacity is, then the less oxygen you can take in, and the more lactic acid you produce. o Residual Volume: the amount of air that remains in the lungs at all times. Used for structural support so the lungs do not collapse. Hemoglobin o Carries blood through the body. o It picks up oxygen in the lungs and transports it through the bloodstream to working muscles. It is then taken into the mitochondria so that energy can be produced. o The more that you exercise, the body will increase the number of hemoglobin in the body and the number of mitochondria in the muscle cells. You therefore feel like you are more energized because you have more energy being produced! Respiratory Adaptations o Breathing increases suddenly at the beginning of exercise until you it a steady state or your VO2 max. o Ventilation will increase as long as the need for oxygen is not being met. Called your ventilatory threshold Can you change this threshold for the better? o The more you exercise, the more oxygen needed, and the lungs will increase the capillary density through a fitness standpoint. Not a genetic standpoint. You can’t change the size of the lungs o Ventilation can also rise due to hot/humid environments because of an increase in body temperature and heat release. Exercise o Exercise is a challenge to homeostasis by Temp regulation Changes of mean arterial blood pressure due to vasodilation of muscles. PC oxygen increase P oxygen increase Glucose uptake increases Decrease in pH levels due to increased lactate levels. o The body responds to the stress of exercise by increase the mitochondrial content o This occurs in about 2 weeks o The person working out will feel better because aerobic pathways that produce ATP increase. Increase mitochondria = more energy = feel better. o Things that affect the increase of mitochondria are: Duration of exercise Frequency of exercise Intensity of exercise Initial mitochondrial content in muscle fibers o Exercise will increase the capillary to fiber ratio in the muscle, which increase the area in the body in which oxygen can be diffused through o The more exercise, the better our breathing becomes, the quicker our body diffuses oxygen, the faster we get out of glycolysis, the less lactic acid is produced, and the smaller our oxygen deficit is. o Once people start working out, we have to continue to push the person’s body by increasing the intensity of the workload. You are teaching the body to continue better the ability to remove lactate
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