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by: Haley O'Connor


Marketplace > Sacred Heart University > > PRACTICE UPLOAD
Haley O'Connor
Sacred Heart University

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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Haley O'Connor on Monday October 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to at Sacred Heart University taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views.

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Date Created: 10/17/16
Chapter 8 24/11/2014 09:10:00  Early Christianity – A World Religion   Origins:  Begins with Jesus during Reign of Tiberius  Jesus taught against the Jewish law  Jesus’ teachings followed the Old testament, claims that you have to believe in him if you want eternal life  Christianity grows/ spreads  Judaism divided into 4 sects:  Sadducees o Traveled around and taught the Old Testament law, strictly adhered to those laws, they believed they were descendants of Solamen (a king of Israel), follow laws to get to heaven  Pharisees o Liberal interpretation of Old Testament, still taught that you had to obey law in order to get to heaven  Essenes o First monks, during an era that values leaving society and freedom from politics and the city, claim “monks” are closer to God than other people  Zealots o Most radical group, reason why Rome continued to attack Jerusalem, constantly rebelled against Romans, demanded that Jews didn’t pay any taxes, didn’t acknowledge leaders, Rome destroyed their temple, extreme o Believed in afterlife, believed that the ‘Messiah’ would save them from enemies  Jesus was born into a split society- four different sects, born into Roman Empire  Jesus taught:  There is a heaven and a hell and the end is near  You can have a relationship to God o Compared to Mesopotamians who believed that you couldn’t have a close relationship with God, Christians changed this view  To be with God you must get rid of your sins  Keep a lot fro the Old Testament: social ethics, care for children and elderly, denounced oppression, etc  Pushed mercy and love towards others  Disliked Sadducees and Pharisees  Problem: Jesus became a threat to the Jewish leaders, they believed Jesus committed blasphemy (goes against teachings of God)  He believed he was more important than Sad. And Phar. Sects  Made claims that he was the son of God  Sentenced to death after Jews claimed he was going to overthrow the government, put to death  Christians claimed that Jesus rose again 3 days later which meant that he really was the son of God (basis of Christian Religion) which spread by the disciples and Apostles  Christianity spread because of St. Paul: he rejected the old Jewish faith, trained as a Pharicee, prosecuted Christians  Went through a spiritual conversion, some event with light and seeing Jesus blah blah  Began to follow Christianity, Paul wrote books of Christianity  Taught to the Jews and gentiles (non-Jews)  His teachings became the official teachings of Christianity, even today  Example: people are born sinful and if you tell the church your sins, you can cleanse yourself  Catholic church believes in purgatory: a place of torture before heaven, where you pay for your sins, in life you want to confess your sins to a priest in life so you can spend less time in purgatory  Paul taught that Jesus came to Earth to save people from their sins and that because of Jesus, people could have eternal life  People liked Jesus because he was merciful, not evil  Problem: Christians began to separate from Rome, Roman emperors persecuted Christians, gained sympathy from the people  Began teaching that Christianity isn’t a nation but it is a world community  Brought people together, gave them meaning to live happily and eternally  Gave hope to people, “free” people of guilt, sense of community   The Spread of Triumph of Christianity:  Christianity & Rome  -Universal aspect to Roman empire  -Fear that Christians would rise up against empire because they preached faith to God, not Rome  -Seen as disloyal citizens (especially through their actions)  -Christians glorified non-vwent against the Roman games (Coliseum)  -Plagues and famines blamed on Christians  -Starved, killed, crucified, beheaded, etc.  -Began to get rid of Greek philosophy, get rid of the Gods that the Greeks spoke of   Growth of Christianity:  Hierarchy of Christian Church  Bishops seen as successors of Christ  First Pope: Peter  Church began to persecute those who were not apart of Roman Christianity  Rise of Monasticism  Found communities based on work  Monasteries  Traveled the Meca, traveling to holy places of Christianity brought you closer to God  **Church believed that Jesus was the son of God**  Began to change Roman society  Made people more peaceful but separated them from their civic duties  Christians and Jews went against each other  Blamed Jews for death of Christ/God   St, Augustine: Christian Worldview  Important Christian theologian  Spiritual destiny  Christians should fight for their city but cities should be based on the religion  Don’t put all hope and trust into city state  War happens, cities fall, don’t worry just hope in heaven and god and eternal life   Similarities and Differences between Christianity and Classical Humanism  Both value the individual – CH: what people can do for the state C: human value to god  Both followed reason but differed in its origin: o Christianity valued reason through God, divine being o Humanism values reason only through human intellect  Christians stressed faith in the end of the world  Classical humanism stressed the here and now  Romans had an active citizenship  Christianity sees value in being a passive citizen, not a part of state/don’t serve in military  Christianity says history has a purpose  Classical Humanists see history as circular, endless cycle, no beginning or end  Classical humanists believed there is no higher authority than reason  Christianity believes there’s no higher authority than God  Humans: look for human for the answers in life  Christians look to God for the answers in life  Humanists: ultimate good was being independent and free and thinking for yourself  Christian: ultimate good comes through obeying and loving God, not necessarily about the individual  Humanism: find justice and happiness and self realization through the political community  Christians: find those same things but you don’t find them in the world, you find them after death, lack of justice and happiness on Earth because of sin, changes when you spend eternity in heaven   Chapter 9 24/11/2014 09:10:00  Heirs of Rome: Byzantium, Islam, Latin Christendom   Byzantine Civilization: Medieval Christian East  Protected from attacks  Wealthier  Eastern half (western fell), Christian, Constantinople  Same government  Claimed to be ruler of Roman Empire   Conflicts with Roman Church:  Pope resisted domination by byzantine empire, neither wanted to give up power, fight  Two major world views result:  Development of the roman catholic church in the west  Greek orthodox in the east  -rest remains roman catholic-  East resisted this religion   Imperial growth and decline  Byzantine empire, Justinian; one of the first eastern empire that wanted to reunite the entire roman world, good military general, took back some of the west, not completely successful because people are attacking  Byzantine accomplishment: without it, the west would have been overtaken by the Islamic civieast held off the west  Islam is growing  Islamic civilization  Began with Mohammad, started/ founded new religion,  While he was sleeping he was visited by arc angel Gabriel, told him that he as going to be the greatest prophet that ever lived  Coran- Islam holy scripture, words of god as revealed to Mohammad  Mohammad believes the Jesus was not the son of god, one of the best prophets but not divine in any way, Christians teach as Jesus is divine, led to separation  5 key beliefs:  5 pillars of Islam:  1). Believe there is no God but Allah and that Mohammad is his prophet  2). Must pray five times a day  3). Give to the poor  4). Ramadon “holy month” no eating & no drinking, sunrise to sunset  5). Must try to make trip to Mecca at least once!!  Mohammad died, Hadithcollection of sayings, stories, and actions of the prophet Mohammad  God seen as source of all law and political authority  Caliph- people seen as God’s earthly deputy ,Sunnis & Shiites, believe they’re destined to rule. Not descendent of Califf but the descendent of Mohammad   Golden Age (placed in Bagdad)  Bagdad on the rise until stagnation  Believed in Holy War   Arabs began to loose dominance and power, conquerors invaded (including Palestine and Russia).  Islam civilization downfall – fastest growing religion, second largest   Latin Christendom: Rise of Europe  Combination of Christian Rome Greek and German elements  Christianity was the center of their life  Rome was the spiritual captiol  Barbarians came in, captured a lot of empire, rome culture, they kept it to themselves( laws, traditions)  Intellectual decline, only looked culturally at the romans  Church: Shaper of Medieval Civilization  Chapter 9 Cont. 24/11/2014 09:10:00  FINAL: Chapter 7,8, & 9   The Church- Shaper of Medieval Civilization  Dominant during late middle ages  Controlled the political factions – got directly involved in the state’s affairs (pope), tried to convert people, gave people a purposeful way of living  Unified people, only avenue to heaven through roman catholic church, concerned for the human soul, without the church people believed they would go to hell, social aspect  Monks helped construct the foundations, kept learning alive, scholars, Latin and Greek kept alive, copied bible and manuscripts, holy  Papacy- gained strength by talking, not fighting, through Gregory the great, church became leading institution of its day, managed monk’s activities, church expanded and ruled   Medieval Society  Based on Feudalism – people (knights and slaves/peasants) that served their lord and master (human not God) got food and shelter  Vassalage: knight who in a ceremony swore allegiance to his lord, served on court, judges, provide lodging for travelers, gave gifts to lord when son was knights and eldest daughter married, based on warfare  Feudal Warrior: highest place of authority outside the church, in battle that the lord earned reputation and worth, what people lived for back then, warfare was the purpose of the lord’s life, can’t get land without being involved  Noblewomen- women were second class citizens in society, ranked stepped backwards, mercy of husbands, beat by husband (in control), arranged marriages, no rights, started giving women rights once the virgin Mary entered Catholicism, entered convent (like a monk)   


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