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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jennifer Fu on Monday October 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 160 at University of California Berkeley taught by Serena Chen in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychology at University of California Berkeley.
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Date Created: 10/17/16
LECTURE NOTES Lecture 11 Cultural differences in the self-concept (Markus & Kitayama) - Independent view of the self: defining oneself in terms of own internal feelings, thoughts, and actions - Interdependent view of the self: defining oneself in terms of relationship with others Self-Complexity Theory (Linville) - Self is cognitively represented in terms of multiple aspects - Self-aspects vary in the affect associated with them - Degree of complexity in the self-varies Self-complexity is defined by - # of different self-aspects - degree of overlap of self-aspects - high self-complexity = large # of distinct self-aspects - low self-complexity = small # of non-distinct self-aspects / more extreme swings in affect & self-evaluation Central-Hypothesis - degree of self-complexity related to how people feel in response to + & - events related to the self Self-Discrepancy Theory (Higgins) - similar to self-complexity theory o multiple self-aspects o affective consequences associated with how self-aspects are related - different from self-complexity theory o discrepancies between self-aspects (not focusing on overlap) o actual selves and hypothetical selves - actual self, ideal self, ought self - actual-ideal discrepancy à dejection - actual-ought discrepancy à agitation Lecture 13 Self-Evaluation Motives - enhancement - accuracy - improvement - consistency Cross-cultural differences? Self-regulation: refers to the processes by which people initiate, alter, and control their behavior in the pursuit of their goals - given that successful goal pursuit often requires resisting temptations, self-regulation also captures people’s ability to delay gratification – that is, to prioritize long-term goals by foregoing short-term rewards Self-discrepancy theory (Higgins) - actual self - ideal self - ought self Promotion focus: regulating behavior with respect to ideal standards – focus on presence and absence of positive outcomes - ex. Striving for the presence of a good grade Prevention focus: regulating behavior with respect to ought standards – focus on presence and absence of negative outcomes - ex. Striving for the absence of a bad grade Ego depletion paradigm - engage in first task that requires self-control or not - engage in second task that requires self-control - people who engaged in first self-control task perform worse on the second task relative to those who did not initially exert self0control - a state, produced by acts of self-control, in which we lack the energy or resources to engage in further acts of self-control Automatic self-control - over time and with practice, certain self-control strategies can be automatized - quick at pushing away temptations, and pulling goals towards us Attitude: a psychological tendency that’s expressed by evaluating an object with some degree of favor of disfavor - component o cognitive o affective o behavioral DISCUSSION NOTES Discussion 6 Sheppard & Arkin (1989) - Told college students that they would be taking a test that was either a valid or invalid predictor of academic success (high importance or low importance task) - Told half the Ps that during the test they would hear a high-pitched ringing that might interfere with their test performance, whereas other half were not led to believe that there was distractor in their environment (handicap present already or not – in other words, ready-made excuse already or not) - All Ps were then given a choice between music that might facilitate their test performance or must that might worsen it - 4 groups (high/excuse, high/no excuse, low/excuse, low/no excuse) - Result: only high performance Ps chose interfering music, and only when did not already have an excuse Linville Study Hypothesis: the less complex a person’s cognitive representation of the self, the more extreme will be the person’s swings in affect and self-appraisal Conclusion: the complexity of the self-representation may provide a promising cognitive marker for vulnerability to depression
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