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Micro Lect Notes 7

by: Madi Burke

Micro Lect Notes 7 BIOL 2051

Madi Burke

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About this Document

Covers metabolism material (not including new photosynthesis notes)
Prof. Brininstool
Class Notes
metabolism, Respiration, Microbiology, Biology, Science, Cellular
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madi Burke on Monday October 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 2051 at Louisiana State University taught by Prof. Brininstool in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Microbiology in Biological Sciences at Louisiana State University.

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Date Created: 10/17/16
METABOLISM: Monday, October 3rd, 2016 Macronutrients required in decent amounts: ~ Carbon (~50%) ~ Oxygen (~17%) ~ Nitrogen (~13%) ~ Hydrogen (~8.2%) ~ Phosphorus (~2.5%) ~ Sulfur (~1.8%) ~ Selenium (<0.01%) *found in a handful of proteins* ~ Potassium ~ Magnesium ~ Calcium ~ Sodium Carbon = for making organic compounds (A.A’s, fatty acids, sugars, nitrogen bases) ~ heterotrophs: organic compounds > get their carbon from organic compounds > different entry into pathways than autotrophs ~ autotrophs: CO2 > get their carbon from CO2 (source) > fix CO2 to make carbon molecules (Calvin Benson Cycle, citric acid pathway (reverse?), hydroxypropionate pathway, Acetyl-CoA pathway) Calvin-Benson Cycle: happens in the stoma of the chloroplasts (dark) (photoautotrophic eukaryotes) and in carboxysomes (autotrophic prokaryotes) Methanogenesis: making methane through a biological process, live in animal intestines; methanogens (archaeal) = chemoorganotrophs (See slide 9) O2: oxic = oxygen / anoxic = oxygen Reducing agents: removes oxygen by reacting with it to form water ~ thioglycolate broth (used to test an organism’s oxygen requirement, bc oxygen is only present at the top of the broth next to the air) > position of organismal growth displays need for oxygen to grow (or if it’s not needed) In the lab: ~ aerobes need oxygen in culture medium: air exposure, shaking, bubbles ~ anaerobes need oxygen to be left out: full tubes, sealed, reducing agents, anoxic jars & glove boxes Toxic forms of oxygen = O2^-, H2O2, OH* (radical) *enzymes can neutralize these toxic forms Nitrogen is needed to make A.A.’s & nit. bases ~ N-fixing microorganisms use atmospheric N2 ~ non-N-fixing microorganisms use inorganic comps. like ammonia (NH3) & nitrate (NO3) Phosphorous is needed to make nucleic acids & P-lipids ~ get it from phosphate minerals & free phosphates Sulfur is needed to make A.A’s (cysteine & methionine), other vitamins & Fe-S proteins ~ get it from sulfates (SO4^2-) & sulfides (S^2-) Potassium is needed for some enzymes & is used for maintaining solute concentrations ~ get it from free K+ & K salts Magnesium is required for many enzymes & is used to stabilize ribosomes/membranes/ nucleic acids ~ get it from salts (from minerals) Calcium is used to stabilize cell walls & is in the calcium-dipicolinic acid complex of endospores Sodium is used by marine microorganisms to stabilize cell walls & by Na+ powered ATP synthase Micronutrients (aka: trace metals) = needed in small amounts ~ Iron is needed for the ETC’s proteins > siderophores = bind to Fe -> bring inside cell * Enterobactins = E. coli & Salmonella typhimurium * Aquacheline = marine bacteria Growth factors = org. comps. needed in small amounts Metabolism = catabolic (produce energy) + anabolic (biosynthetic/use energy) rxns REDOX: OIL RIG (Oxidation is Loss, Reduction is Gain) Redox rxns = couples rxns = donor oxidized & acceptor reduced ELECTRON CARRIERS: ~ transfer electrons from donor -> acceptor ~ membrane bound = cytochrome c ~ free diffusing (coenzymes) = NAD+/NADH CATABOLISM: Energy: ~ released through redox rxns. ~ stored in molecules / transported to where they are needed s d n u o p m o c e g a r o t s ~ > short term - ATP = Adenosine triphosphate *primary energy carrier for cellular use *high energy phosphate bonds = 2 phosphoanhydride (energy released through breaking of these bonds) - Coenzyme A-thioester bonds (derivatives) m r e t g n o l > - Glycogen - Poly-B-hyrdoxybutyrate - Sulfur (elemental) Energy & Electrons: ~ Chemoorganotrophs: energy source from organic compounds > processes: fermentation, aerobic /anaerobic respiration ~ Chemolithotrophs: energy source from inorganic compounds > processes: mostly aerobic, some can perform anaerobic respiration Phosphorylation (Types): . 1 Substrate level {removes a phosphate ( PO4^3- ) group from a substrate to convert ADP to ATP} . 2 Oxidative {inorganic phosphate ( free PO4^3- / P(i) ) converts ADP to ATP (ATP synthase involved) } . 3 Photophosphorylation {oxidative, but needs light} *Know class of enzyme & what kind of reaction it carries out* Glycolysis: ~ major pathway of the metabolism of glucose molecules ~ generates 2 ATP & 2 pyruvates (per glucose molecule) ~ happens in cytoplasm (only in cells that can use glucose… so no chemolithotrophs!) : s e m y z n E ~ 1. Hexokinase (ATP required) {took a phosphate and attached it to the } e s o c u l g e s a r e m o s I . 2 3. Phosphofructokinase (ATP required) e s a l o d l A . 4 5. Triosephosphate isomerase 6. Glyceraldehyde-3-P dehydrogenase (NAD+ required) l e v e l 2 H d e t a r e n e g e s e s o c u l g f o e c n e s e r p , n e g y x o Homolactic fermentation: (Step 11 on slide 47) ~ Streptococcus & Lactococcus > lack enzymes that allow the products CO2 and Ethanol to be formed > lactate dehydrogenase = lactate products (2) (aka: lactic acid) > regenerates (2) NAD+ ~ human muscular cells do this when the need for respiration outweighs the amount of oxygen intake (like when you’re working out… if you workout) Heterolactic fermentation: c o t s o n o c u e L ~ ~ Heterolactic bacteria do not do glycolysis P T A 1 s e c u d o r p y l n o ~ Hydrogenosomes in some anaerobic eukaryotes (ex: Trichomonas (a flagellated protozoan)) oxidize pyruvate to make ATP with substrate level phosphorylation. Acetyl-CoA -> Acetylphosphate -> Acetate, ATP *Trichomonas is a human pathogen that can be sexually or non-sexually transmitted because it can survive in urine, blood, semen & other bodily fluids (causes Trichomoniasis)* RESPIRATION: 1 glucose molecule = 38 ATP molecules Glucose completely oxidized to CO2 ~ glucose - > 2 pyruvate (glycolysis) P T A 8 + - 2 ATP used - 2 NADH used ~ pyruvates - > CO2 (citric acid cycle) P T A 0 3 + - 1 GTP -> 1 ATP - 4 NADH - 1 FADH NADH & FADH donate electrons & protons to ETC = proton motive force -> ATP synthase -> ATP (oxidative phosphorylation) * protons pass outside the membrane, form gradient, reenter via ATP synthase * generate 6, 24, & 4 ATP = 34 P T A e t a r e n e g , s n o r t c e l e r e f s


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