Lecture 18 1134
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by courtney Notetaker on Monday October 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1134 at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University taught by Christine E. Steer in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views.
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Date Created: 10/17/16
4th century Greece o Greeks between Persia and Carthage Disgruntled Greeks turned to Persia for aid Lots of small wars and skirmishes Athens fell, which led to more power struggles No single city state was dominant for a considerable amount of time Individuals became more powerful A less democratic society o Powers in the north Northern city states are adopting methods of Greek warfare tactics Becoming more Greek, and more powerful o Sparta's empire Athens was broke, Sparta had no intention of freeing the Greek city states They were just as bad as Athens Lysander Was not the leader the Greeks were hoping for He became very rich, so did Sparta Installed oligarchies throughout Greece However, he couldn’t be a king He wasn’t of the right lineage Sparta and Athens Lysander wanted to be a king but he couldn’t The kings restored democracy in Athens so that Lysander couldn’t become more powerful than them Darius I, King of Persia, died after the Peloponnesian war His 2 sons were his successors Artaxerxes (he was the true heir) Cyrus - he wanted to rule though so he asked Sparta to wage war on Persia He died in the battle This story was written by Xenophon Sparta desired to free Ionia from Persia 396 - Agesilaus marched into Sardis Artaxerxes paid city states to fight Persia for him o Corinthian War Sparta v. Thebes, Athens, Corinth, and Persia Athens led Persia's fleet, they defeated the Spartan fleet The kings Peace Artaxerxes said that he would keep his stuff, but the other Greek city states would be independent Led to 4 years of peace They decided to resign the peace in 371 BC Thebes refused o Economy, society, and war Siege warfare Soldiers paid to fight Fleets are huge Citizens begin t rise to power Phalanx falls from importance Military spending in Athens is out of control New soldiers Lightly armed, they throw stuff Calvary begins to form New warfare is very expensive, so Athens turns to Persia for money o Sparta's collapse They are still fighting the old fashioned way Their population is rapidly decreasing They refuse to change their ways Marched against Thebes o Thebes and the sacred band Sacred band was 150 pairs of gay lovers They were professional soldiers Thebes won against Sparta End of Sparta as a major player Thebes marched on Sparta They stopped, because of a river Freed the helots instead Helots made a new, independent city state o Anarchy in the Aegean Carthage and Syracuse Carthage attacked But there was a plague in Sparta Called for a peace Carthage got the west, Syracuse got the east The golden age of Syracuse Dionysius I won a big victory Wanted to be greater than he was Brought Plato to his court to educate his son Dionysius II didn’t like Plato Anarchy in the west Dionysius II fought Carthage but lost lots of money an men Syracuse lost its power over Greece Greece is ow very week as a whole o Art and architecture Aphrodite of Cnidus 1st statue of a nude female Very innovative Moving away from gods, towards people in art and architecture People look more realistic o Plato in philosophy Born to a wealthy family Didn’t like democracy What is truth and goodness? Arête - excellence Democracy is a threat to excellence He didn’t like sophists They said there was no absolute truth, Plato disagreed Plato's republic Ideal forms There are ideal forms of everything They are intangible, a mental idea We will never reach the perfect, ideal form Cave allegory All we see are the shadows of forms His academy o Aristotle Student of Plato Teacher of alexander the great Things change towards a purpose Change towards an end Something has to start the change - a "prime mover"
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