FHS 327 Week 1-2 Reading Notes; Civics
FHS 327 Week 1-2 Reading Notes; Civics FHS 327
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaitlyn Endo on Monday October 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to FHS 327 at University of Oregon taught by Alltucker K in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views.
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Date Created: 10/17/16
Quick Civics Lessons Notes FHS 327 The Test: • 100 civics questions (history and government) total, 10 will be asked. 6/10 questions need to be correct to pass • English portion o Speaking § Determined by USCIS Officer based on your answers to questions normally asked during eligibility interview o Reading § 1/3 sentences correctly o Writing § 1/3 sentences correctly A: Principles of American Democracy • What is the supreme law of the land? o The Constitution o Lasted longer than any other country’s constitution o Establishes a system of government called “representative democracy” § Citizens choose representatives to make the laws § U.S. citizens also choose a president to lead the executive branch of g ovt o Constitution lists fundamental rights for all citizens and other people living in the U.S. • What does the constitution do? o Set up the govt o Defines the govt o Protects basic rights of Americans o Divides govt power between the national and the state govt à “federalism” o Founding Fathers who wrote Constitution the “Framers” of the Constitution o 3 branches: executive, legislative, and judicial o changes and additions to the Constitution are called “amendments” o first 10 amendments are called “Bill of Rights” • The idea of self-government is in the first three words of the Constitution. What are these three words? o “We the People” o people set up the government o people who are the highest power à “popular sovereignty” • What is an amendment? o A change (to the constitution) o An addition (to the constitution) o Framers decided that Congress could pass amendments in only two ways: § 2/3 vote in U.S. Senate and the House of Reps § special convention (has to be requested by 2/3 of the states) § amendment must then be ratified (accepted) by the legislature of ¾ of the states § amendment can also be ratified by a special convention in ¾ of the states • What do we call the first ten amendments to the Constitution? o Bill of Rights • What is one right or freedom from the First Amendment? o Speech, religion, assembly, press, petition the government • How many amendments does the Constitution have? o 27 • What did the Declaration of Independence do? o Announced independence from Great Britain o Declared our independence from Great Britain o Said that the U.S. is free from Great Britain o States that people are created equal and have “certain unalienable rights” —rights that no government can change or take away o Thomas Jefferson (author of Declaration ) wrote that American colonies should be independent because Great Britain didn’t respect the basic rights of the people in the colonies o “consent of the governed” –the people create their own government and consent to follow laws their govt makes o Second Continental Congress voted to accept the Declaration on July 4, 1776 • What are two rights in the Declaration of Independence? o Life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness • What is freedom of religion? o You can practice any religion, or not practice a religion • What is the economic system in the U.S.? o Capitalist economy o Market economy o Business and consumers interact in the marketplace, where prices can be negoti–“market economy” o Business decide what to produce, how much to produce, and what to charge o Consumers decide what, when, and where they will buy goods and services. • What is the “rule of law” o Everyone must follow the law o Leaders must obey the law o Government must obey the law o No one is above the law o John Adams wrote, “a govern of laws, and not of men”à no person or group is above the law o U.S. Constitution is the foundation for the rule of law o U.S. is a “constitutional democracy” –people are willing to obey the law because the laws are made by the people through their elected representatives. B: System of Government • Name one branch of part of the government o Congress, legislative, president, executive, the courts, judicial o Legislative Branch: § Congress § Article I of the Constitution —it explains that Congress makes laws § Comprised of the Senate and the House of Representatives o Executive Branch: § President and cabinet § Article II of the Constitution —it explains executive branch enforces the laws that Congress passes o Judicial Branch: § Highest judicial power is the Supreme Court § Article III of the Constitution establishes judicial branch § Decide if government laws and actions follow the Constitution. • What stops one branch of government from becoming too powerful? o Checks and balances o Separation of powers o “separation of powers”—limits the power of the government and prevents the government from violating the rights of the people • Who is in charge of the executive branch? o The President o President is both head of state and the head of government o Ability to sign treati es with other countries and to select ambassadors to represent the U.S. around the world o Sets national policies and proposes laws to Congress o Names the top leaders of the federal department (like vacancy in supreme court) § Senate has power to reject the p resident’s choices though • Who makes federal laws? o Congress, Senate and House, legislature o Federal law usually applies to all states and all people in the U.S. o Process: § Senate or House of reps can propose a bill • When senate proposes a bill, sends the bill to Senate committeeà committee studies the issue and the bill • When House of Reps proposes a bill à sends bill to House of Reps committeeà committee studies the bill and sometimes makes changes to it § Then bill goes to the full House or Senate for consideration § When chamber passes its own version of the bill, goes t“conference committee” (has members of both House and Senate) à committee discusses the bill, tries to resolve the differences, write a report with the final version of the bill § Then committee sends the final version back to both houses for approval § If both houses approve the bill, it is considered “enrolled”à enrolled bill goes to the president to be signed into law à becomes fed law. § Summary: • Senate or House of Reps proposes and drafts bill à senate committee or house committee studies ità full House and Senate for consideration à chamber passes own versionà conference committeeà committee discusses, makes changes, makes final version à goes back to House and Senate for approvalà both houses approveà enrolledà signed by presidentà fed law • What are the two parts of the U.S. Congress? o The Senate and the House of Reps o Two chambers in U.S. Congress à “bicameral” legislature o Only Senate has power to reject a treated signed by president or a person the president chooses to serve on the Supreme Court o Only House has power to introduce a bill that requires Americans to pay taxes • How many U.S. Senators are there? o 100 o two from each state – all states have equal power in the Senate because each state has the same number of senators • We elect a U.S. Senator for how many years? o 6 o Constitution puts no lim it on the number of terms a senator may serve o Elections for U.S. senators takes place on even numbered years o Every 2 years 1/3 of the senators are up for election • Who is one of your state’s U.S. Senators now? o Dianne Feinstein o Barbara Boxer • The House of Representatives has how many voting members o 435 o each state must have at least one rep in the House o number of reps from each state depends on the population of the state o constitution says that the govt will conduct a census of the pop every 10 years to count the number of people in each state o total number of voting U.S. reps doesn’t change. • We elect a U.S. Rep for how many years? o 2 o people who live in a representatives district are called “constituen ts” and thus reps tend to reflect the views of their constituents • Name your U.S. Reps o Matsui • Who does a U.S. Senator rep? o All people of the state • Why do some states have more Reps than other states o Because states pop, have more people • We elect a Preside nt for how many years? o 4 o president is only official elected by the entire country though the Electoral College—a process that was designed by the writers of the Constitution to select pres. o Citizens vote for electors, who then choose the president o 22 Amendment to the Constitution, the president can only be elected to two terms • In what Month do we vote for President? o November o Election Day—Tuesday after the first Monday in November o Congress chose November because U.S. was mostly rural —by November, farmers had completed their harvests and were available to vote • What is the name of the President of the U.S. now? o Obama • What is the name of the VP of the U.S. now? o Joe Biden • If the President can no longer serve, who becomes President? o VP • If both the Pres and the VP can no longer serve, how becomes Pres? o Speaker of the House • Who is the Commander in Chief of the military? o The president o Pres commands the armed forces, but Congress has the power to pay for the armed forces and declare war o War Powers Act—gave Congress a stronger voice in decisions about the use of U.S. troops • Who signs bills to become laws o President o Every law begins as a proposal made by a member of Congress o When the senate or house begins to debate the proposal its“bill”d a o If the pres wants the bill to become law, he sings it. If the pres doesn’t want the bill to become law, he vetoes it o Pres cannot introduce a bill • Who vetoes bills? o The president o President has 10 days to evaluate the bill; if he/she doesn’t sign the bill afte r 10 days and Congress is in session, bill automatically becomes a law o If pres does nothing with the bill and Congress adjourns within 10 days, bill doesn’t become law—called “pocket veto” • What does the President’s Cabinet do? o Advises the president o President nominates the cabinet members to be his advisors • What are two Cabinet -level positions? o Agriculture, commerce, defense, education, energy, healthy and human service, homeland security, housing and urban development, the interior, labor, state, transpiration, treasury, veterans affairs, attorney general, vice president o 15 executive departments • What does the judicial branch do? o Reviews laws, explains laws, resolves disputes, decides if a law goes against the Constitution • What is the highest court in the U.S.? o Supreme Court o Complete authority over federal courts o Ruling can affect the outcome of many cases in the lower courts o Interpretations of fed laws and the Constitution are final o Cannot make decisions about state law or state constitutions o Court can decide that state law or action conflicts with federal law or with the U.S. Constitution o State law becomes invalid o Marbury v. Madison à “judicial review” o Rules on cases about significant social and public policy issues that affect all Americans • How many justices are on the Supreme Court? o 9 o Constitution does not establish the number of Justices on the Supreme Court o As many as 10 and as few as 6 justices o President has power to nominate justices to Supreme Court; nominees must then be confirmed by Senate o Justices serve on court for life or until they retire • Who is the Chief Justice of the U.S. now? o John Roberts • Under our Constitution, som powers belong to the federal government. What is one power of the federal government? o To print money, declare war, create an army, make treaties • Under our constitution, some powers belong to the states. what is one power of the states? o Provide schooling and education, protection (police), safety (fire departments), driver’s license, approve zoning and land use. o State has its own constitution, but cannot conflict with U.s. Constitution • Who is the Governor of your state? o Brown o Governor is the chief executive of the state o Governor’s job in a state govt is similar to the pres job in the federal govt o Duties and powers vary from state to state o Term is 4 years • What is the capital of your st ate o Sacramento • What are the two major political parties in the U.S. o Democrat and republican • What is the political party of the President now? o Democrat • What is the name of the Speaker of the House of Representatives now? o Boehner C: Rights and Responsi bilities • There are four amendments to the Constitution about who can vote. Describe one of them. th o 15 Amendment—permits American men of all races to vote o 19 Amendment—gave women the right to vote o 24 Amendment—made poll taxes illegal th o 26 Amendment—lowered the voting age from 21 o 18 • What is one responsibility that is only for U.S. citizens? o Serve on a jury o Bote in a federal election • Name one right only for U.S. citizens o Vote in a federal election o Run for federal office o Candidate for Senate must be a U.S. citizen for at least 9 years o Candidate for House must be a U.S. citizen for at least 7 years o To run for pres a candidate must be a native born. • What are two rights of everyone living in the U.S.? o Freedom of expression, speech, assembly, petition the govt, Worship, bear arms • What do we show loyalty to when we say the Pledge of Allegiance? o U.S. o The flag • What is one promise you make when you become a U.S. citizen? o Give up loyalty to other countries o Defend the Constitution and laws of the U.S. o Obey the laws of U.S. o Serve in U.S military o Serve the nation o Be loyal to the U.S. • How old do citizens have to be to vote for President? o 18 • What are tow ways that Americans can participate in democracy? o Vote o Join political party o Help with campaign o Join a civic group o Join a community group o Give an elected official your opinion on an issue o Call senators and representatives o Publicly support or oppose an issue or policy o Run for office o Write a newspaper • When is the las t day you can send in federal income tax forms? o April 15h • When must all men register for the Selective service? o 18-26 o Selective Traning and Service Act —created the first draft during peacetime o Draft was needed again for Korean and Vietnam Wars o Today there is no draft but all men between 18 -26 must register with the selective service system AMERICAN HISTORY A: Colonial Period and Independence: • What is one reason colonists came to America? o Freedom o Political liberty o Religious freedom o Economic opportunity o Practice their religion o Escape persecution • Who lived in America before the Europeans arrived? o American Indians, Native Americans o Pilgrims settled in an area where a tribe called Wampanoag lived o Waampanoag taught the pilgrims skills like how to farm with different methods and how to grow crops such as corn, beans, and squash • What group of people was taken to America and sold as slaves o Africans • Why did the colonists fight the British? o Because of high taxes (taxation without representation o Because the British army stayed in their houses (boarding, quartering) o Because they didn’t have self government • Who wrote the Declaration of Independence? o Thomas Jefferson o 3 president of the US (1801-1809) • When was the Declaration of Independence adopted? o July 4, 1776 o The Second Continental Congress met in 1775 after fighting began between the colonists and the British Army • There were 13 original states. Name three. o New Hampshire o Pennsylvania o Massachusetts o Delaware o Rhode Island o Maryland o Connecticut o Virginia o New York o North Carolina o New Jersey o South Carolina • What happened at the Constitutional Convention o Constitution was written by the Founding Fathers o Constitutional Convention was held in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, from May t o September 1787 o Each state sent delegates who worked for four months in secret to allow for free and open discussion as they wrote the new document o The delegates who attended the Constitutional Convention are called “the Framers” • When was the constitution written? o 1787 • The Federalist Papers supported the passage of the U.S. Constitution. Name one of the writers. o James Madison o Alexander Hamilton o John Jay o Publius o The essays explained why the state should ratify the Constitution o 1788, the papers were published together in a book called the Federalist • What is one thing Benjamin Franklin is famous for? o U.S. diplomat o Oldest member of the Constitutional Convention o First Postmaster General of the U.S. o Writer of “Poor Richards Almanac” o Started the first free libraries o Founding father • Who is the “Father of Our Country”? o George Washington • Who was the first President? o George Washington • What territory did the U.S. buy from France in 1803 o Louisiana Territory o For $15 million o Important because the city of New Orleans was a major shipping port • Name one war fought by the US in the 1800s o War 1812 o Mexican—American War o Civil War o Spanish-American War • Name the U.S. war between the North and the South o Civil War or War between the States • Name one problem that led to the Civil War o Slavery o Economic reasons o State’s Rights o Began when 11 southern states voted to secede from the US o Southern states believed that the federal government threatened their right to make their own decisions o North and South had very diff economic systems o Northern states fought to keep all the US together in “The Union” • What was one important thing that Abraham Lincoln did? o Freed the slaves (emancipation proclamation) o Saved the Union o Led the US during the Civil War • What did Susan B Anthony do? o Fought for women’s rights o Fought for civil rights C: Recent American History and Other Important Historical Information • Name one war fought by the US in the 1900s o WWI o WWII o Korean War o Vietnam War o Gulf/Persian War • Who was president during WWI o Woodrow Wilson • Who was President during the Great Depression o Franklin Roosevelt • Who did the US fight in WWII o Japan, Germany, and Italy • Before he was President, Eisenhower was a general. What war was he in? o WWII • During the Cold War, what was the main concern of the U.S.? o Communism o Soviet Union was powerful nation that operated under communism and U.S. and allies feared the expansion of communism • What movement tried to end racial discrimination? o Civil rights movement • What did Martin Luther Ki ng Jr. do? o Fought for civil rights o Worked for equality for all Americans • What major event happened on September 11 2001? o Terrorist attack US of both twin towers in NYC • Name one American Indian tribe in the US o Cherokee o Iroquois o Mohegan o Navajo o Creek o Huron o Sioux o Blackfeet o Oneida o Chippewa o Seminole o Lakota o Choctaw o Cheynne o Crow o Pueblo o Arawak o Teton o Apache o Shawnee o Hopi o Innuit INTIGRATED CIVICS A: Geography • Name one of the two longest rivers in the United States o Missouri o Mississippi • What ocean is on the West Coast of the United States? o Pacific Ocean • What ocean is on the East Coast of the United States? o Atlantic Ocean • Name one U.S. Territory o Puerto Rico o U.S. Virgin Islands o American Samoa o Northern Mariana Islands o Guam • Name one state that borders Canada o Maine o Minnesota o New Hampshire o North Dakota o Vermont o Montana o NY o Idaho o Pennsylvania o Washington o Ohio o Alaska o Michigan • Name one state that borders Mexico o California o Arizona o New Mexico o Texas • What is the capital of the U.S. o Washington D.C. • Where is the Statue of Liberty? o NY o Liberty Island B: Symbols • Why does the fag have 13 stripes? o Because there were 13 original colonies • Why does the flag have 50 stars? o Because there is one star for each sta te • What is the name of the national anthem? o Star Spangled Banner C: Holidays • When do we celebrate Independence Day? o July 4 • Name two national U.S. holidays o New Years Day o Martin Luther King Jr. Day o President’s Day o Memorial Day o Labor Day o Columbus Day o Veterans Day o Thanksgiving o Christmas
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