Biology 105 Unit 2.2
Biology 105 Unit 2.2 BIOL 105
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Megan Notetaker on Monday October 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 105 at University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire taught by David Lonzarich in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biology at University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire.
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Date Created: 10/17/16
Biology week 2 Somatic cells o They have all the genes Gametes o They have ½ the cells All DNA has o Base pair o Double helix o Phosphate group o Deoxyribose o Hydrogen bond o Nucleotide o Nitrogenous base 4 kinds G, C, A, T G C T->A Proteins from DNA o Somatic cells 23 chromosomes Cells Geomes, chromosomes with DNA o Gnomons Chromosomes Not just DNA but proteins Nucleic acids o Gene On chromosome and genome o 1 Gene can code for more than 1 protein o letters come from nucleotide Sugar, phosphate, base o Chromsome DNA+ Protein o Gene Sequence of nucleotides that codes for proteins 23,000 genes 100,000s of proteins o Language of protein Amino acids o Transcription+ Translation Process of DNA to a Protein Transcription (1 step) o Transcribing code DNA into code of RNA o Want to make RNA o DNA G, C, A, T, T o RNA C, G, G, U, U T -> A A -> U o Pre mRNA turns into mRNA o Replication occurs in the nucleus o Transcription occurs in the neculs o RNA leaves the nucleus o Translation occurs in the ribosomes Cytoplasm ribosomes o DNA -> RNA -> Protein Stuff that is cut out Stuff that is Kept Leaves the nucleus Translation o Translating code RNA into code of proteins o 4 nucleotides -> 20 Amino Acids o 5 steps Amino Acid structure builds proteins ATP- Energy source Ribosomes- where translation occurs Build of nucleic acids, RNA molecules Messenger RNA – Code for AA sequence Enzymes- Mediate translation o Transfer RNA (RNA, tRNA) – carry amino acid to cytoplasm o Codons mRNA letters code in triplets o Anticodon Different tRNA for different amino acids Found on transfer RNA Gene Expression o Gene expression is regulated Gens are not always “on” o Manufacturing of a protein o Transcription/ translation o All somatic cells contain the same DNA but don’t express the same genes o Gene expression in eukaryotes is regulated in many different ways both by internal and external triggers o Eukaryotes have many complex gene regulating mechanisms Unpacking DNA Processing RNA TRANSCRIPTION Regulating gene expression o Regulation of DNA packing Proteins cover DNA No transcription happens Limits transcription Same DNA = different proteins = different mRNA o RNA processing and breakdown It’s about the code Histones are the protein coat Histones +DNA = Chrosomes Chemicals change relationship between protein and DNA Regulating of Transcription o Transcription factors Enters the cell Binds to cell Testosterone Iniating transcription Chemical
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