ANTH 240 Week 8 Notes
ANTH 240 Week 8 Notes Anth 240
Minnesota State University, Mankato
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hallie Notetaker on Monday October 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Anth 240 at Minnesota State University - Mankato taught by Dr. Chelsea Mead in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see Language and Culture in Anthropology at Minnesota State University - Mankato.
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Date Created: 10/17/16
Sign Language Definitions Visually based languages o Makes use of hands, fingers, body, facial features, mouth, etc. Grammatical structure different from spoken language Culturally bound o Not universal ASL vs. BSL vs.AusLan Arise out of necessity o Deaf individuals do not have access to vocal auditory channel o Major point – Deaf vs. deaf Primary – used as communication between Deaf people Alternate – used by speakers of a language that may not necessarily be deaf, like PISL Village sign languages o Situation where large number of deaf people live (ex. Genetic trait) o Signing emerges between hearing and non-hearing members of the community so that people can communicate o Martha’s Vineyard example Deaf community sign languages o Develops when a number of Deaf individuals are brought together for some specific purpose o Example – founding a school and/or standardizing a sign language Manually Coded Sign Language Artificial languages Like learning a second language Reproduce exact structures of spoken language o Examples – signed exact English (SEE), cued speech o Signs for (-ing) and (-ment) Sign the root morpheme, then you sign the suffix o Improving Sign (improve) + (ing) In ASL, improving, improvement are variations of the same sign Contact sign o Most people can use both to some degree and mix them – especially for hearing people Features of ASL Structure is different from spoken English Concept-based signs o Right: Correct Opposite of left Legal principle Handedness matters o One-handed signs are often made with dominant hand o Depends on dialect Grammar differences Culture Difference in Sign Languages In ASL, to be grammatically complete, questions require eyebrow manipulation o Wh- questions – furrowed o All others – raised Evidence of change – “which” In Nicaraguan Sign Language, you wrinkle your nose Different grammars between spoken/written English &ASL o I-Ask-Her is one sign inASL o In spoken English, it’s three words Story and History of ASL Pre 1817, no standardized education for deaf individuals o Aneed for one arose Key people o Thomas Gallaudet (1787-1851) Graduate of Yale o Alice Cogswell (1805-1830) Nine year old deaf girl o Laurent Clerc (1785-1869) French graduate of the Paris School for the Deaf Began teaching atAmerican Asylum at Hartford, Connecticut (1817) o Now known as theAmerican School for the Deaf o First school for Deaf people in the United States o Had to develop a standardized sign language Used an amalgamation of French Sign Language and indigenous/village sign languages of the Northeast (PISL, MVSL, etc.) Primary or alternate? Village or community? Primary, Deaf-community sign language Teaching and Negotiation of Sign Language in US 1800s – old Signed English was actively taught End of 1800s and early 1900s o “Oral” approach – lip reading and fingerspelling were critical Bilingualism and resistance o From Deaf parents o From schoolmates o Used Manually Coded English, speech reading, fingerspelling at school o ASL amongst themselves and within the community Language Ideologies 1867 – founding of the Lexington School for the Deaf in NYC o First purely oral school in the US Oral philosophy o For deaf children to be successful in the hearing world, they had to develop spoken language through speaking, fingerspelling and speech reading o Signing was actively discouraged o Sign languages were second-class systems of communication o Assumptions and dynamics Hearing and speaking is dominant Others must join the dominant group Language Ideologies about Deaf Community and Signing Thought it was broken English – users were linguistically and/or mentally limited Something that needed to be “fixed” “Primitive” Public Figures and Eugenics Alexander Graham Bell o “Mistakes sprung out of the manifest limitations of her development” Helen Keller o “At that time the compliments he paid me were so generous that I blush to remember them. But now that I have come out for socialism he reminds me and the public that I am blind and deaf and especially liable to error. I must have shrunk in intelligence during the years since I met him…” Implications of Ideologies Lack of access to power o Decision made on behalf of Deaf people o Kept dependent o Internalized oppression Stigmatized o Stares and mocking o Tarnished image ofASL o Degraded the individual Slow learner, “retarded” Emotionally disturbed, willful “Every child deserves a chance at oralism” “If a child is taught fingerspelling and sign language he will never learn to talk” Gallaudet University – Academic Shift William Stokoe Jr. o Took a job teaching English at Gallaudet College in 1955 o Was not deaf himself but wanted to learn to better communicate with his students o Manually Coded English/Signed English Artificial language that follows structures of spoken English…morpheme by morpheme, word by word…slower Students generally used in class but not beyond o Studying students’use of sign language outside of class 1960 Stokoe published Sign Language Structure which showed the phonology, morphology and syntax ofASL Had been discouraged by fellow faculty members Implications in LanguageAcquisition 90% of deaf children born to hearing parents o Many of them are unequipped and not educated in the needs of raising a deaf child Are unable to hear their parents and others Often have no exposure to a signed language Less extreme cases of Genie or Victor? o Had communicative contact, but no language Critical Period Hypothesis o Do these children learn a native language? o Research suggests yes and no Native signers o Usually raised by Deaf-aware parents o Have exposure to the sign language from birth o Full and correct use of markers and tenses inASL Later learners o Usually raised by hearing parents o Often do not get exposed to sign language until going to a Deaf school (age 5-7) o Tendency to use certain markers and tenses closer to SEE thanASL o “Near native-like fluency” Beware the Single Story Resilience in the Deaf community o Educational efforts Deaf President now o Intermarriages o Linguistic distinctiveness Allies and changing winds o Linguistic research o Legislation Americans with DisabilitiesAct
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