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Lecture 20

by: Nathaniel Bautz

Lecture 20 MICROBIO 160

Nathaniel Bautz
GPA 2.9
MICROBIO 160 - Biology of Cancer and AIDS
Mitchell Walkowicz

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Here are the notes to lecture 20
MICROBIO 160 - Biology of Cancer and AIDS
Mitchell Walkowicz
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nathaniel Bautz on Friday April 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MICROBIO 160 at University of Massachusetts taught by Mitchell Walkowicz in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 98 views. For similar materials see MICROBIO 160 - Biology of Cancer and AIDS in Biology at University of Massachusetts.

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Date Created: 04/03/15
LECTURE 20 THE ORIGINS OF HIV 0 9 Strange Diseases gt Kaposi s Sarcoma KS rare form of relatively benign cancer that tends to occur in older people gt July 1981 41 cases of aggressive KS occurred amongst young gay men in New York and LA The Story Unfolds gt April 22 1984 Dr Mason CDC I believe we have the cause of AIDS gt Researchers at Pasteur Institute discovered virus the previous year LAV gt April 23 1984 US Health and Human Services Secretary Margaret Heckler announced that Dr Robert Gallo of the NCI had isolated AIDS virus HTLV III gt Heckler We hope to have a vaccine against AIDS ready for testing in about two years yet another terrible disease is about to yield to patience persistence and outright genius What is AIDS gt Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome I Acquired means you can get infected with it not inherited I Immune Deficiency means a weakness in the body s system that fights disease I Syndrome means a group of health problems that make up a disease gt The term AIDS refers to an advanced stage of HIV infection when the immune system has sustained substantial damage gt Not everyone who has HAV infection develops AIDS Does HIV Cause AIDS gt HIV is the virus which causes the fatal disease of the immune system AIDS gt There are several critics who say AIDS is not caused by HIV infection gt Kary Mullis PhD is a biochemist who got the 1993 Nobel prize for his invention of the Polymerase Chain Reaction PCR Peter Duesberg amp AIDS Dissidents gt Proposed hypothesis that the various American and European diseases identified as AIDS are brought on by the long term consumption of recreational drugs andor AZT gt Immune system breakdown in Africa can be explained by malnutrition poor drinking water and infection overload gt Retroviruses like HIV must be harmless to survive because after reverse transcription from RNA and DNA they depend on cell division to replicate gt South American President Thabo Mbeki voiced support for the Duesberg hypothesis and suffered substantial political fallout as a result Does HIV really cause AIDSgt gt HIV isolated from virtually every patient with AIDS has been cultured or confirmed by molecular techniques PCR gt Accidental exposure to HIV in lab workers resulted in development of AIDS no other risk factors present gt Animal models of human AIDS gt HIV is the only factor that predicts whether a person will develop AIDS disease found in individuals from diverse backgrounds HIV1 and HIV2 gt 1984 researchers discovered the primary causative viral agent the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 HIV1 gt In 1986 a second type of HIV called HIV2 was isolated from AIDS patients in West Africa gt Both HIV1 and HIV2 have the same modes of transmission and are associated with similar opportunistic infections and AIDS gt In persons infected with HIV2 immunodeficiency seems to develop more slowly and tend to be milder gt HIV2 infected individuals are less infectious early in the course of infection gt HIV1 and HIV2 also differ in geographic patterns of infection the US has few reported HIV2 cases Chimpanzees Were Original Source of HIV1 gt February 1999 a University of Alabama group found a type of SIchz that was almost identical to HIV1 gt The strain was identified in a frozen sample taken from a subgroup of chimpanzees once common in westcentral Africa Researchers claimed this sample proved that chimpanzees were the source of HIV1 The virus at some point crossed species from chimps to humans Theory wild chimps simultaneously infected with 2 different SIV which had viral sex VVV forming a third virus that could be passed on to other chimps and was capable of infecting humans and causing AIDS How Did HIV Cross Species gt The Hunter Theory SIchz was transferred to humans as a result of chimps being killed and eaten of their blood getting into cuts or wounds on the hunter gt The Oral Polio Vaccine OPV theory virus was transferred through polio vaccine I Kidney cells taken from local chimps infected with SIchz I February 2000 the Wistar Institute tested old vial of polio vaccine no HIV or chimpanzee SIV I Macaque monkey kidney cells were used for vaccine not cmz How did HIV Spread in Humans gt The Contaminated Needle Theory African healthcare professionals reused needles could have transferred HIV from hunters to population gt The Colonialism Theory hash labor camps lack of food poor sanitation weakened immune system could lead to HIV if SIV infected chimp was eaten gt The Conspiracy Theory HIV is manmade as bioweapon mainly to wipe out minorities and homosexuals I Ignores the clear link between SIV and HIV or the fact that the virus has been identified in people as far back as 1959 I Lack of geneticengineering technology available to create the virus at the time that AIDS first appeared 393 Earliest Known Instances of HIV Infection gt gt gt gt gt gt A plasma sample taken in 1959 from an adult male living in what is now the Democratic Republic of Congo HIV found in tissue samples from an American teenager who died in St Louis in 1969 HIV found in tissue samples from a Norwegian sailor who died around 1976 HIV1 might have been introduced into humans around the 1930s Dr Bette Korber Los Alamos National Laboratory I 7th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections HIV2 is thought to come from the SIV in Sooty Mangabeys rather than chimpanzees In May 2003 a group of Belgian researchers lead by Dr AnneMieke Vandamme concluded that HIV2 first appeared in 1940 to 45 What Lead to the Current HIV Epidemic gt gt gt gt Travel The Blood Industry Injection During Use Unprotected Sex


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