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Class Notes- Week 6

by: Samantha Sobers

Class Notes- Week 6 Research Methods 301

Samantha Sobers
GPA 3.8
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Hey guys! Here's a free preview of what I'll be uploading weekly. It will be class notes from the lecture, with possibly notes from recitation later on.
Research Methods
Malte Reichelt
Class Notes




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samantha Sobers on Monday October 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Research Methods 301 at New York University taught by Malte Reichelt in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Research Methods in Sociology at New York University.

Similar to Research Methods 301 at NYU

Popular in Sociology


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Date Created: 10/17/16
Research Methods Notes Week 6 Class Notes 10/11- Survey Research and Analysis of Quantitative Data - Systematic Sampling o SRS with shortcut selection procedure  Instead of a random list, sampling interval  Ex. 300 out of900 names, random starting point, and every third is picked o Elements in the sample have to be ordered without pattern - Other forms of sampling o Stratified  Division of population into sub-populations (strata)  Random sample of each  Used when stratum of interest is small percent of the population  Few per state, class, gender  Oversampling possible when particularly interested in strata o Cluster Sampling  Aggregate units are randomly selected and then samples are drawn  Covers wide geographical areas  Results in large sampling errors; should adjust for size  Special case: within household sampling o Random-digit Dialing  General public interviewed by phone  Random selection of area code, 3-digit exchange number and 4 digit number  Bias of people with a phone and for people who don’t work  Additional sampling of household members necessary o Most major surveys use a multitude of different sampling methods - Decision Regarding Sampling Size o Sufficient sample size depends on population characteristics, type of data analysis, degree of confidence  The smaller the population, the larger the sampling ratio has to be - Non-Representative Sampling o Better for qualitative research o Prone to bias  But easier to reach hidden populations - For Our Research Projects o Quota sampling o Use city-data (website) - Surveys o Fairly new- 70s/80s o Was too costly and hard to analyze o Can’t keep everything the way it is and only change one thing o Get large sample o Statistically control for confounding effects - Constructing a Questionnaire o You need to take a multitude of potential errors into account  In selecting a respondent  In responding to survey questions  Survey in administrative errors o How Do They Occur?  Language difficulties  Unclear questions  Questions that confuse or frustrate people o Careful with sensitive topics o Specific and clear Class Notes 10/13- Survey Research Part 2 - Sensitive Topics o Eg. Sex, drugs, police interactions, income, education, sports o Ways to Approach  Create comfort and trust  Use enhanced phrasing  Establish a desensitizing context  Use anonymous questioning methods o People can overestimate their data with charities and other things that might make them look better (social desirability); they don’t want to be honest with themselves - Respondent Recall o Four techniques to reduce telescoping  Situational Framing  Starting with specific situation  Decomposition  Adding up specific events (like months)  Landmark Anchoring  Asking whether something happened before or after an event  Bonded Recall  For panels: what events happened since the last interview - Contingency Questions o Avoid asking questions that are irrelevant for the respondent - Probes, Open-Ended, Close-Ended Questions o Clarify- probes o Open-Ended  Need options/hint; harder to take all notes down o Partially Open-Ended Questions  Way to go for us  Open-answer category  Everyone can answer question  Don’t know - Advantages o Which form is more appropriate for you  Closed  Easier/quicker to answer  Answers are easier to compare and code  Higher probability for answering sensitive topics  Clear meaning of question  Less literate/articulate respondents aren’t at a disadvantage  Open  Unlimited number of answers  Respondent can clarify the answer  Discover unanticipated findings  Adequate answers to complex questions - Disadvantages o Closed  Suggest ideas that respondent wouldn’t have  Frustration when their choice isn’t there  More categories lead to confusion  Misinterpretation can go unnoticed  Simplistic answers to complex topics o Open  Different degrees of detail in answers  Potentially irrelevant  Coding may be difficult  Questions may be too general  Response time - Differential Question o Many more choices  Neutral categories  Satisficing vs desirability  Agree/disagree, rankings, ratings  Some people tend to disagree  Rank then rate  Wording  Eg. Help the door question - Questionnaire Design Issues o Length of survey or questionnaire- make sure it seems appropriate o Organization of questionnaire  Short questions first  Easy questions first (not income) o Context Effects  Who’s asking the question, how you dress, gender, dress - Layout/Format o Use enough space, face sheet (time, date, interviewer, respondent ID), give instructions (different color), letter in large surveys o Vertical categories better (like hierarchy)


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