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Chapter 8: genes & GMOs

by: Hailey N Detrick

Chapter 8: genes & GMOs BIO 101

Marketplace > Elon University > Biology > BIO 101 > Chapter 8 genes GMOs
Hailey N Detrick
Elon University

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Chapter 8: inclass and book notes
Topics in General Biology
Class Notes
GMOs, genes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hailey N Detrick on Monday October 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 101 at Elon University taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Topics in General Biology in Biology at Elon University.

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Date Created: 10/17/16
Chapter 8: 1. Genes: a. DNA wrapped in proteins b. Sequence of DNA that codes for proteins 2. 46 chromosomes = 23 base pairs a. 1 Chrome from mom + 1 Chrome from dad 3. Proteins: a. 30,000 proteins in body b. amino acids (repeating subunits) c. “macromolecule” d. “proteins do everything” – Dr. Bush e. many function i. muscles ii. hair iii. blood f. 20 different Types of amino acids i. (A portion of all that are exactly the same) 4. Amino Acids: a. Will not stay in a line b. Folds the exact same way i. Water ii. Positive / negative charge c. Starts linear à puts into cytoplasm à 3D protein d. If you change an amino acid, you can change the shape e. The shape determines the function i. I.e. sickle cell anemia 5. Where do proteins come from? a. The instructions to make proteins are encoded by genes (DNA) b. Steps: i. DNA: 1. Transcription: double strand à nucleotides to amino acids à single strand ii. RNA: 1. Transition: occurs in ribosomes in cytoplasm iii. Protein c. Gene Expression: synthesis of a protein in a gene d. Transcription: i. RNA polymerase bind, DNA strands unwind ii. Complimentary strands of RNA 1. DNA = A à T 2. RNA = A à U iii. mRNA formed, detaches DNA reforms double helix iv. mRNA leaves nucleolus, the DNA curls ready to make another gene 6. Gene Expression and Translation: a. mRNA “translated” in corresponding amino acid sequence (proteins) b. Codone: 3 nucleotides – mRNA c. Anticodone: 3 nucleotides – tRNA i. mRNA + tRNA = protein ii. amino acids detach and fold into 3D model d. only mRNA make proteins e. Universal Genetic Code: i. Every different code for mRNA will always make the same amino acaid 7. Alleles: alternate versions of genes 8. Anti-thrombine Gene à anti-thrombine protein a. Anti-blood clot i. Varying levels of susceptibility of blood clots 1. 2 good copies of anti-thrombine (least likely) 2. 1 good copy of anti-thrombine {from either mom or dad} (semi- likely) 3. 0 good copies {from either mom nor dad} (very likely) 9. GMO: genetic modification organism a. Steps of Pharmaing: anti-thrombine & goats (transgenic organism) i. 1 part goat: 1 part human = recumbent gene ii. inject into goat embryo iii. plant into Surgut goat 1. gene expressed iv. extract milk (with anti-thrombine gene) 1. purified protein v. extracts anti-thrombine gene to make medication b. Genetically Modified Foods: i. Corn ii. Soy iii. Canola Oil iv. Cotton Seed v. Milk 1. rBST / rBGH a. r = recombinant gene 2. growth hormone injected into the cow a. more cow = more milk vi. Meat c. Pros and Cons of Genetic Modification: i. Pros: 1. Less pesticides 2. Mass Production a. Lower prices 3. Longer shelf life 4. Added nutrition a. Yellow rice 5. Curing diseases ii. Cons: 1. Expensive upfront 2. Allergy risk a. Eat tomato with peanut gene = anaphylactic shock 3. Biggest toll: environment 10. Pharming: using animals to produce specific genes a. Transgenic Organism: goat with small amount of human


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