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PSYC 261 Week 9 Notes

by: Eryn Dixon

PSYC 261 Week 9 Notes PSYC 261

Eryn Dixon
CSU Chico
GPA 2.74

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About this Document

The terms and concepts in these notes will be covered on Exam 2.
Research Methods in Psychology
Adelaide Kreamer
Class Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Eryn Dixon on Monday October 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 261 at California State University Chico taught by Adelaide Kreamer in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Research Methods in Psychology in Psychology at California State University Chico.


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Date Created: 10/17/16
The Nuts and Bolts of Correlational Studies Correlations ● Correlational Study ○ Examines the relationship between multiple dependent variables without manipulating and variables ■ Does not provide any information about causal relationships ○ Multiple Measures ■ Most often using survey observational technique ■ Do scores co-vary/ change together across the sample ● Provides exploratory information ● Allows for predictions Research Questions ● Descriptive ○ Asking whether there is a relationship between variables ● Predictive ○ Asking whether the presence or level of one variable can predict the presence or level of another variable ■ Predictor Variable ● The variable used for prediction ■ Outcome Variable ● The variable being predicted Causation ● Correlation DOES NOT equal causation ● Review… ○ Directionality Problem ■ The direction of the cause-effect relationship cannot be determined ● No manipulation of a variable = not enough information ● Low internal validity, lots of alternative explanations ○ Third Variable Problem ■ Possible that a third, unrepresented variable, is causing the relationship seen ● No control for extraneous variables ● Low internal validity, lots of alternative explanations Types of Relationships ● Positive Relationships ○ The variables change in the same direction ■ As variable A increases, Variable B increases ■ As variable A decreases, Variable B decreases ● Ex: Time spent studying and test performance ● Negative Relationship ○ The variables change in opposite directions ■ As Variable A increases, Variable B decreases ■ As Variable A decreases, Variable B increases ● Ex: Time spent with a headache and mood Correlation Coefficient ● Correlation Analyses ○ Pearson Product-Moment Correlation ■ Pearson ​r ● Correlation Coefficient ○ Two pieces of information ■ Strength ● Numeric value 0 to 1 ○ 0 = No relationship ○ 1 = Perfect correlation/Strongest possible ■ Type of Relationship ● +/- sign ○ + = Positive relationship ○ - = Negative relationship


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