Lifespan Development Chapter 7
Lifespan Development Chapter 7 HDFS 2010-001
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Morgan Ball on Monday October 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HDFS 2010-001 at Auburn University taught by Carol L. Roberson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Lifespan Human Development in Family Context in Human Development at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 10/17/16
Chapter 7 Physical development: nutrition, drugs and the brain • Nutrition: providing a variety of right choices o Obesity is a growing issue § Related to decline in cognitive ability, long-term obesity (which is associated with depression, diabetes, heart disease, etc.) • Psychopharmacological drugs in kids o Antidepressant, stimulants o Antipsychotics § Hearing and seeing things that are not there § Not really meant for kids § Can be used for moods as well The growing brain • Increases thickness of the corpus callosum o Corpus callosum: bundle of neurons that connect the left and right hemisphere (how the two sides communicate) • Brain lateralization: differentiated, specialized • Left hemisphere o More verbal (language), speaking, reading, thinking • Right hemisphere o Nonverbal, spatial relationships, recognition of patterns, music, emotional, expression o More of an impact on emotions and feelings o Being able to recognize expressions and such • Myelination continues maybe related to increased attention span • Increase in motor skills o Myelination one reason o All the activity- highest at age 3 than at anytime during life Intellectual development • Piaget o Preoperational thinking (2-7) § Use of symbolic thinking grows, mental reasoning emerges, use of concepts increases § Very curious and begin to use primitive reasoning ú Though fail to know how they know what they know § Limitations ú Centration: concentrating on one aspect of something and ignoring other aspects ú Buttons- visual image dominates their thinking (an early example of conversation) § Conservation: knowledge that quantity is unrelated to the arrangements and physical appearance of objects § Illustrated by classic juice glass experiment § Problems with conservation occur because of the centration issue § Another centration issue is animism ú Animism: giving living characteristics to nonliving objects might focus on its movement (such as a leaf, a car) • Thomas the train § Egocentrism: don’t take into account the view points of others physically, in terms of thoughts, feeling, etc. ú Hide and seek in plain sight ú Newer research again shows that kids have greater capabilities than Piaget realized o Information processing approach § Attention: paying attention to something ú Make advances in executive attention: • Planning, monitoring progress, etc. § Sustained attention: ú Focused, extended engagement § Memory ú Accuracy of long-term memory? • Interview techniques o Ask open ended questions o Don’t allow long periods of time to fall in-between o Video tape o Try one interview rather than multiple ú Big increases in short-term memory in part because of rehearsal ú When speaking of abuse it is important to not “implant” a memory § Numerals ú Preschoolers can count- even if they are not always correct, will usually be consistent ú quarter counting § Also simple addition and subtraction § How can you enhance mathematical skills? • Vygotsky o Kids learn in context of social interaction o Zone of proximal development: level at which child can almost perform a task independently and can assist § Hint that is given: ú Scaffolding: the assistance provided • Mostly words o Emphasized the importance of language § They use it to communicate and solve task o They often use “private speech” in solving problems • Language and learning o Explosion in terms of words 14,000 by age 6 o Fast mapping: learn after limited exposure o Invented spelling § Requires high level of phonological awareness- associated with good spelling and reading later • Television o Preschoolers watch 21 hours a week o American academy of pediatrics § Recommends NO TV under 2 § No more than 1-2 hours a day over 2 Chapter 6 Socio-emotional development in infancy ▯ Developing the roots of sociability Emotions o What are emotions? Have biological arousal component, cognitive component, behavioral component Pulled over by officer Biological arousal: Heart rate, sweating, etc. Cognitive: Do I have my licenses? My parents? This is going to be expensive? Behavioral: Cry, screaming, etc. o How do we know infants experience emotions? They cry o What functions do emotional expressions have Behavioral organization (social responses, adaptive behavior Social responses “Sorry officer.” “I wasn’t speeding” Communication o Stranger anxiety Begins sometime in middle of first year Baby is more accepting of females and children (reactions less stressed) If the baby has more experience with others they are less likely to be overwhelmed when seeing others o Separation anxiety Begins 7-8 months, peaks around 14 months o Both stranger anxiety and separation anxiety are universal, represent increased cognitive abilities and bonds with parents o Social referencing: intentionally looking to another for information about the situation When getting pulled over and there is a passenger in the car the driver looks at passenger to refer to Begins around 8-9 months Mixed messages- different messages from mom and dad can cause distress When a baby falls over a mom might over react where the child follows but dad might not care as much Often will use social referencing when the situation is ambiguous/ unclear Self awareness o Measured by the mirror and rouge experiment Take a baby and whip something red on their nose and face them in front of a mirror, if they try to move it from their nose they know the baby is them Gain capability after 17 months, also some awareness of their capabilities (what they are capable of and what they are not capable of) Chimps can not do the mirror thing but elephants can Theory of mind o Do they know what is going on in their minds? Can they understand what is in their mind? Guessing someone else’s thoughts o Explanations that children use to explain how others think Shown in People as “compliant agents” Raising a Sippy cup and mom gets milk, baby manipulated mom’s action Empathy (about 2 years of age) See friend crying and they give them a hug Deception Dog treat story Temperament Patterns of arousal and emotionality that are consistent, enduring characteristics of the individual Do they cry easy? Can you take them anywhere? Do they smile more? Regularly? Eat at the same time. Poop at the same time. Sleep patters. o Appears largely genetic and stable, but modifiable by child rearing practices o Elements include Activity level Irritability (how easily disturbed) Rhythmicity (regularity) Quality of mood Approach-withdrawal (to new people, situations) o Thomas and Chess: 3 major types Easy (40%) Positive disposition, high rhythmicity, adaptability, moderate or low intensity Sleep easy, happy, easy to adapt, regular patterns Difficult (10%) Negative moods are slow to adapt, withdrawal, high irritability, more predictable Irregular, hard to comfort when upset, negative and unhappy Slow to warm (15%) Inactive, calm but negative mood and withdraw from new situation They do adapt but slowly Goodness to fit especially with difficult babies How do parents react Warmth and consistency vs. anger and inconsistency How we interact with children effect them in the long run Gender: sense of being male or female o Different depending on culture but biologically very similar except for the obvious body parts o Behavior differences are because kids are socialized into their gender roles of the culture Very few actual differences (other than anatomical- between boys and girls) Boys: more toward independence When boys act out “boys will be boys” Girls: dependence and compliance Parents seem to be more protective ▯ Social relationships Attachment: balancing safety and security and the need to explore, learn new skills o Use Ainsworth strange situation test to determine attachment status Secure: explore independently +/- Upset when mom leaves, comfort when returns Wrapping themselves around mom when she returns Mom exhibits “interactional synchrony” sensitive, responsive, warm Child is more independent, curious, etc. Ambivalent: low exploration High distress when mom leaves, ambivalent react when returns Mom provides inconsistent care and responsiveness Child is dependent, anxious, as adults maybe more jealous Mom is very wishy washy which makes child confused and not great with relationships When mom returns they are not consistent due to mom not being consistent ▯ Avoidant Doesn’t interact with mom, not distressed when she leaves, avoids her when she returns o “Given up” on getting emotional needs meet o Mom- low on synchronicity, sensitivity, and warmth, acts as if child is a burden o Child later less involved with others, distant o Mom allows child to cry it out and acts as if they are a burden Disorganized (disoriented) o Inconsistent, contradictory behavior Sometimes associated with abusive families May experience dissociative experiences in adolescence When mom walks back into room baby runs half way and than collapses on floor mid way Story with girl and abusive dad and later in life with boyfriend she was crawling ▯ Erikson- psychosocial stages of development Infancy: 2 stages o Trust vs. mistrust (1-18 months) Depends on how well their needs are met by caregivers Do not allow child to cry it out- they rely on caregivers o Autonomy vs. shame and doubt (18-36) Develop independence, autonomy if parents encourage exploration, freedom “I can do it myself” give child opportunities to choice what they want, clothes or shoe tying Develop shame, self-doubt, unhappiness if parents overly restrictive/ protective Helping the child (they can almost do something but not too well)- scaffolding ▯ Reciprocal socialization: infants’ behaviors invite response from parents, which then elicit infants’ reactions They speak- we respond, they smile- we respond, they cry- we respond Interactions with peers o Smile, laugh, vocalize more while looking at peers than at a mirror image of self o 9-12 months accept toys from others, 14 months reproduce others behaviors
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