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Lifespan Development Chapter 8

by: Morgan Ball

Lifespan Development Chapter 8 HDFS 2010-001

Marketplace > Auburn University > Human Development > HDFS 2010-001 > Lifespan Development Chapter 8
Morgan Ball

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These notes included all topics discussed on chapter 8 such as: - Forming a sense of self - Play - Parenting styles - And more
Lifespan Human Development in Family Context
Carol L. Roberson
Class Notes
hdfs 2010, Human, development, Human Lifespan Development, lifespan development
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Morgan Ball on Monday October 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HDFS 2010-001 at Auburn University taught by Carol L. Roberson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Lifespan Human Development in Family Context in Human Development at Auburn University.

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Date Created: 10/17/16
Chapter 8 Forming a sense of self • Self-efficacy o Erikson § Ages 3-6 § Initiative vs. guilt ú “I can do it” vs. guilt is fail ú want to act independently, but not always successful, or conflicts with conscience ú give them SMALL hint • self-concept o categorical self: preschooler can describe self in terms of visible characteristics § what likes. What looks like, whom pays with, etc. ( not inner enduring qualities) • emotional– self o developing increased emotional regulation- as control shifts from parents to child (internalizes) § help through emotion-coaching § kids with more emotional control are more popular with peers § child rocks themselves, deep breathing, hot shower § caregiver help a lot in this • social-self o increases development of social scripts- in life play § “I’m a good helper” “I’ll be the mommy, you be the daddy” “I’ll be the police officer, you be the firefighter” • gendered-self o gender identity: by age 2 correctly label as boys/ girls § “ are you a boy or a girl?” o gender stability: by 4 realize will stay same sex for life § “will you always be a boy or a girl?” o gender constancy takes till about 6 or so to establish gender constancy § notion that someone stays the same gender despite hair length, clothes, etc. § “do you stay the same gender with your hair and clothes?” – other people • during preschool years, pretty rigid about gender- appropriate behavior o make fun of the boy playing with dolls o make fun of the girl with short hair • in terms of socialization: o parents tend to be more restrictive of girls than boys o girls socialize to be obedient/ responsible than boys o dads tend to be more rigid about boys’ gender roles and spend more time with sons than daughter o peer socialization § boys are socialized to rough, physical, dominance- oriented play ú competitive § girls are socialized to be less active, less aggressive play ú eye-contact, common ground ( my babysitter got glasses) Play • play helps kids develop socially, cognitively, physically o increases likelihood of a special friend • social aspects of play o parallel play: play with similar toys, similar manner without much interaction o associative play: interact by borrowing, sharing but don’t do the same thing o cooperative play: genuinely interact, taking turns, etc. • other types of play o sensorimotor: play with toys that relate to sensorimotor schemes § infants o practice play: repetition of using a new skill (how new skills are learned) § throughout life o pretense/ symbolic play: using the environment as a symbol § using a table as a car § involves ú cooperation, imagination, cognitive skill ú horses understand this ú who plays what roles ú pretend play ú autistic kids don’t tend to use this play as often ú constructive play: creation or construction of a product • building a fort, tower • impediments to play: media and screen time • group entry into play o skilled attempts is to watch others and then become a part of the game o unskilled attempts include aggressive behavior or interrupting the group o unskilled preschoolers maybe more rejected by their peers and lead to more aggression in boys, more parallel in girls § child wants to be included in group so teacher can use scaffolding by walking them over to the group o kids who don’t do it well can be taught Parenting styles • Authoritative: rules with reasons and warmth o Independent, good peer relations, self-assertive, cooperative • Authoritarian: controlling and cold- do it my way (or the highway) o Physical abuse most time (spanking) o Outcomes: withdrawn, not very friendly, boys hostile, girls dependent • Permissive: few limits, lax but often caring o Outcomes: dependent, moody, low social skills • Uninvolved (permissive-negligent): no interest in kids other than meeting physical needs o Outcomes: worst- feel unloved, emotionally detached, also often behavior problems • Discipline o Spanking is never an appropriate discipline technique according to American Academy of pediatrics o Why? § Increased aggressiveness in kids § Fear § Less internalization of rules § Doesn’t teach the desired behavior o What to use instead § Redirection § Explanation § Time-outs ú Something meaningful § Routines ú Charge money ú Do a chore ú “What do you think you should do?” o Moral development: social learning approach § Best adult models are warm, responsive abstract modeling ú Develop generalized principals o Aggression: in preschool years largely about getting child getting what she wants (toy, space) § Why are kids aggressive? ú Social learning approach • Frustration and Bobo ú TV § Cognitive approaches emphasize intent and teaching kids how to interpret it o Abuse § Physical ú Purposely injure their child ú Burns and bruises and shaking § Neglect ú Medical ú Food/clothing § Sexual ú The child knows them ú Signs • Over involved in sexual conversations • Masturbate during odd times § Emotional ú Direct and indirect   Chapter 6 Socio-emotional development in infancy ▯ Developing the roots of sociability  Emotions o What are emotions?  Have biological arousal component, cognitive component, behavioral component  Pulled over by officer  Biological arousal: Heart rate, sweating, etc.  Cognitive: Do I have my licenses? My parents? This is going to be expensive?  Behavioral: Cry, screaming, etc. o How do we know infants experience emotions?  They cry o What functions do emotional expressions have  Behavioral organization (social responses, adaptive behavior  Social responses  “Sorry officer.” “I wasn’t speeding”  Communication o Stranger anxiety  Begins sometime in middle of first year  Baby is more accepting of females and children (reactions less stressed)  If the baby has more experience with others they are less likely to be overwhelmed when seeing others o Separation anxiety  Begins 7-8 months, peaks around 14 months o Both stranger anxiety and separation anxiety are universal, represent increased cognitive abilities and bonds with parents o Social referencing: intentionally looking to another for information about the situation  When getting pulled over and there is a passenger in the car the driver looks at passenger to refer to  Begins around 8-9 months  Mixed messages- different messages from mom and dad can cause distress  When a baby falls over a mom might over react where the child follows but dad might not care as much  Often will use social referencing when the situation is ambiguous/ unclear  Self awareness o Measured by the mirror and rouge experiment  Take a baby and whip something red on their nose and face them in front of a mirror, if they try to move it from their nose they know the baby is them  Gain capability after 17 months, also some awareness of their capabilities (what they are capable of and what they are not capable of)  Chimps can not do the mirror thing but elephants can  Theory of mind o Do they know what is going on in their minds? Can they understand what is in their mind? Guessing someone else’s thoughts o Explanations that children use to explain how others think  Shown in  People as “compliant agents”  Raising a Sippy cup and mom gets milk, baby manipulated mom’s action  Empathy (about 2 years of age)  See friend crying and they give them a hug  Deception  Dog treat story  Temperament Patterns of arousal and emotionality that are consistent, enduring characteristics of the individual  Do they cry easy? Can you take them anywhere? Do they smile more?  Regularly? Eat at the same time. Poop at the same time. Sleep patters. o Appears largely genetic and stable, but modifiable by child rearing practices o Elements include  Activity level  Irritability (how easily disturbed)  Rhythmicity (regularity)  Quality of mood  Approach-withdrawal (to new people, situations) o Thomas and Chess: 3 major types  Easy (40%)  Positive disposition, high rhythmicity, adaptability, moderate or low intensity  Sleep easy, happy, easy to adapt, regular patterns  Difficult (10%)  Negative moods are slow to adapt, withdrawal, high irritability, more predictable  Irregular, hard to comfort when upset, negative and unhappy  Slow to warm (15%)  Inactive, calm but negative mood and withdraw from new situation  They do adapt but slowly  Goodness to fit especially with difficult babies  How do parents react  Warmth and consistency vs. anger and inconsistency  How we interact with children effect them in the long run  Gender: sense of being male or female o Different depending on culture but biologically very similar except for the obvious body parts o Behavior differences are because kids are socialized into their gender roles of the culture  Very few actual differences (other than anatomical- between boys and girls)  Boys: more toward independence  When boys act out “boys will be boys”  Girls: dependence and compliance  Parents seem to be more protective ▯ Social relationships  Attachment: balancing safety and security and the need to explore, learn new skills o Use Ainsworth strange situation test to determine attachment status  Secure: explore independently  +/- Upset when mom leaves, comfort when returns  Wrapping themselves around mom when she returns  Mom exhibits “interactional synchrony” sensitive, responsive, warm  Child is more independent, curious, etc.  Ambivalent: low exploration  High distress when mom leaves, ambivalent react when returns  Mom provides inconsistent care and responsiveness  Child is dependent, anxious, as adults maybe more jealous  Mom is very wishy washy which makes child confused and not great with relationships  When mom returns they are not consistent due to mom not being consistent ▯ Avoidant  Doesn’t interact with mom, not distressed when she leaves, avoids her when she returns o “Given up” on getting emotional needs meet o Mom- low on synchronicity, sensitivity, and warmth, acts as if child is a burden o Child later less involved with others, distant o Mom allows child to cry it out and acts as if they are a burden  Disorganized (disoriented) o Inconsistent, contradictory behavior  Sometimes associated with abusive families  May experience dissociative experiences in adolescence  When mom walks back into room baby runs half way and than collapses on floor mid way  Story with girl and abusive dad and later in life with boyfriend she was crawling ▯ Erikson- psychosocial stages of development  Infancy: 2 stages o Trust vs. mistrust (1-18 months)  Depends on how well their needs are met by caregivers  Do not allow child to cry it out- they rely on caregivers o Autonomy vs. shame and doubt (18-36)  Develop independence, autonomy if parents encourage exploration, freedom  “I can do it myself”  give child opportunities to choice what they want, clothes or shoe tying  Develop shame, self-doubt, unhappiness if parents overly restrictive/ protective  Helping the child (they can almost do something but not too well)- scaffolding ▯ Reciprocal socialization: infants’ behaviors invite response from parents, which then elicit infants’ reactions  They speak- we respond, they smile- we respond, they cry- we respond  Interactions with peers o Smile, laugh, vocalize more while looking at peers than at a mirror image of self o 9-12 months accept toys from others, 14 months reproduce others behaviors


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