Lifespan Development Chapter 8
Lifespan Development Chapter 8 HDFS 2010-001
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Morgan Ball on Monday October 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HDFS 2010-001 at Auburn University taught by Carol L. Roberson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Lifespan Human Development in Family Context in Human Development at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 10/17/16
Chapter 8 Forming a sense of self • Self-efficacy o Erikson § Ages 3-6 § Initiative vs. guilt ú “I can do it” vs. guilt is fail ú want to act independently, but not always successful, or conflicts with conscience ú give them SMALL hint • self-concept o categorical self: preschooler can describe self in terms of visible characteristics § what likes. What looks like, whom pays with, etc. ( not inner enduring qualities) • emotional– self o developing increased emotional regulation- as control shifts from parents to child (internalizes) § help through emotion-coaching § kids with more emotional control are more popular with peers § child rocks themselves, deep breathing, hot shower § caregiver help a lot in this • social-self o increases development of social scripts- in life play § “I’m a good helper” “I’ll be the mommy, you be the daddy” “I’ll be the police officer, you be the firefighter” • gendered-self o gender identity: by age 2 correctly label as boys/ girls § “ are you a boy or a girl?” o gender stability: by 4 realize will stay same sex for life § “will you always be a boy or a girl?” o gender constancy takes till about 6 or so to establish gender constancy § notion that someone stays the same gender despite hair length, clothes, etc. § “do you stay the same gender with your hair and clothes?” – other people • during preschool years, pretty rigid about gender- appropriate behavior o make fun of the boy playing with dolls o make fun of the girl with short hair • in terms of socialization: o parents tend to be more restrictive of girls than boys o girls socialize to be obedient/ responsible than boys o dads tend to be more rigid about boys’ gender roles and spend more time with sons than daughter o peer socialization § boys are socialized to rough, physical, dominance- oriented play ú competitive § girls are socialized to be less active, less aggressive play ú eye-contact, common ground ( my babysitter got glasses) Play • play helps kids develop socially, cognitively, physically o increases likelihood of a special friend • social aspects of play o parallel play: play with similar toys, similar manner without much interaction o associative play: interact by borrowing, sharing but don’t do the same thing o cooperative play: genuinely interact, taking turns, etc. • other types of play o sensorimotor: play with toys that relate to sensorimotor schemes § infants o practice play: repetition of using a new skill (how new skills are learned) § throughout life o pretense/ symbolic play: using the environment as a symbol § using a table as a car § involves ú cooperation, imagination, cognitive skill ú horses understand this ú who plays what roles ú pretend play ú autistic kids don’t tend to use this play as often ú constructive play: creation or construction of a product • building a fort, tower • impediments to play: media and screen time • group entry into play o skilled attempts is to watch others and then become a part of the game o unskilled attempts include aggressive behavior or interrupting the group o unskilled preschoolers maybe more rejected by their peers and lead to more aggression in boys, more parallel in girls § child wants to be included in group so teacher can use scaffolding by walking them over to the group o kids who don’t do it well can be taught Parenting styles • Authoritative: rules with reasons and warmth o Independent, good peer relations, self-assertive, cooperative • Authoritarian: controlling and cold- do it my way (or the highway) o Physical abuse most time (spanking) o Outcomes: withdrawn, not very friendly, boys hostile, girls dependent • Permissive: few limits, lax but often caring o Outcomes: dependent, moody, low social skills • Uninvolved (permissive-negligent): no interest in kids other than meeting physical needs o Outcomes: worst- feel unloved, emotionally detached, also often behavior problems • Discipline o Spanking is never an appropriate discipline technique according to American Academy of pediatrics o Why? § Increased aggressiveness in kids § Fear § Less internalization of rules § Doesn’t teach the desired behavior o What to use instead § Redirection § Explanation § Time-outs ú Something meaningful § Routines ú Charge money ú Do a chore ú “What do you think you should do?” o Moral development: social learning approach § Best adult models are warm, responsive abstract modeling ú Develop generalized principals o Aggression: in preschool years largely about getting child getting what she wants (toy, space) § Why are kids aggressive? ú Social learning approach • Frustration and Bobo ú TV § Cognitive approaches emphasize intent and teaching kids how to interpret it o Abuse § Physical ú Purposely injure their child ú Burns and bruises and shaking § Neglect ú Medical ú Food/clothing § Sexual ú The child knows them ú Signs • Over involved in sexual conversations • Masturbate during odd times § Emotional ú Direct and indirect Chapter 6 Socio-emotional development in infancy ▯ Developing the roots of sociability Emotions o What are emotions? Have biological arousal component, cognitive component, behavioral component Pulled over by officer Biological arousal: Heart rate, sweating, etc. Cognitive: Do I have my licenses? My parents? This is going to be expensive? Behavioral: Cry, screaming, etc. o How do we know infants experience emotions? They cry o What functions do emotional expressions have Behavioral organization (social responses, adaptive behavior Social responses “Sorry officer.” “I wasn’t speeding” Communication o Stranger anxiety Begins sometime in middle of first year Baby is more accepting of females and children (reactions less stressed) If the baby has more experience with others they are less likely to be overwhelmed when seeing others o Separation anxiety Begins 7-8 months, peaks around 14 months o Both stranger anxiety and separation anxiety are universal, represent increased cognitive abilities and bonds with parents o Social referencing: intentionally looking to another for information about the situation When getting pulled over and there is a passenger in the car the driver looks at passenger to refer to Begins around 8-9 months Mixed messages- different messages from mom and dad can cause distress When a baby falls over a mom might over react where the child follows but dad might not care as much Often will use social referencing when the situation is ambiguous/ unclear Self awareness o Measured by the mirror and rouge experiment Take a baby and whip something red on their nose and face them in front of a mirror, if they try to move it from their nose they know the baby is them Gain capability after 17 months, also some awareness of their capabilities (what they are capable of and what they are not capable of) Chimps can not do the mirror thing but elephants can Theory of mind o Do they know what is going on in their minds? Can they understand what is in their mind? Guessing someone else’s thoughts o Explanations that children use to explain how others think Shown in People as “compliant agents” Raising a Sippy cup and mom gets milk, baby manipulated mom’s action Empathy (about 2 years of age) See friend crying and they give them a hug Deception Dog treat story Temperament Patterns of arousal and emotionality that are consistent, enduring characteristics of the individual Do they cry easy? Can you take them anywhere? Do they smile more? Regularly? Eat at the same time. Poop at the same time. Sleep patters. o Appears largely genetic and stable, but modifiable by child rearing practices o Elements include Activity level Irritability (how easily disturbed) Rhythmicity (regularity) Quality of mood Approach-withdrawal (to new people, situations) o Thomas and Chess: 3 major types Easy (40%) Positive disposition, high rhythmicity, adaptability, moderate or low intensity Sleep easy, happy, easy to adapt, regular patterns Difficult (10%) Negative moods are slow to adapt, withdrawal, high irritability, more predictable Irregular, hard to comfort when upset, negative and unhappy Slow to warm (15%) Inactive, calm but negative mood and withdraw from new situation They do adapt but slowly Goodness to fit especially with difficult babies How do parents react Warmth and consistency vs. anger and inconsistency How we interact with children effect them in the long run Gender: sense of being male or female o Different depending on culture but biologically very similar except for the obvious body parts o Behavior differences are because kids are socialized into their gender roles of the culture Very few actual differences (other than anatomical- between boys and girls) Boys: more toward independence When boys act out “boys will be boys” Girls: dependence and compliance Parents seem to be more protective ▯ Social relationships Attachment: balancing safety and security and the need to explore, learn new skills o Use Ainsworth strange situation test to determine attachment status Secure: explore independently +/- Upset when mom leaves, comfort when returns Wrapping themselves around mom when she returns Mom exhibits “interactional synchrony” sensitive, responsive, warm Child is more independent, curious, etc. Ambivalent: low exploration High distress when mom leaves, ambivalent react when returns Mom provides inconsistent care and responsiveness Child is dependent, anxious, as adults maybe more jealous Mom is very wishy washy which makes child confused and not great with relationships When mom returns they are not consistent due to mom not being consistent ▯ Avoidant Doesn’t interact with mom, not distressed when she leaves, avoids her when she returns o “Given up” on getting emotional needs meet o Mom- low on synchronicity, sensitivity, and warmth, acts as if child is a burden o Child later less involved with others, distant o Mom allows child to cry it out and acts as if they are a burden Disorganized (disoriented) o Inconsistent, contradictory behavior Sometimes associated with abusive families May experience dissociative experiences in adolescence When mom walks back into room baby runs half way and than collapses on floor mid way Story with girl and abusive dad and later in life with boyfriend she was crawling ▯ Erikson- psychosocial stages of development Infancy: 2 stages o Trust vs. mistrust (1-18 months) Depends on how well their needs are met by caregivers Do not allow child to cry it out- they rely on caregivers o Autonomy vs. shame and doubt (18-36) Develop independence, autonomy if parents encourage exploration, freedom “I can do it myself” give child opportunities to choice what they want, clothes or shoe tying Develop shame, self-doubt, unhappiness if parents overly restrictive/ protective Helping the child (they can almost do something but not too well)- scaffolding ▯ Reciprocal socialization: infants’ behaviors invite response from parents, which then elicit infants’ reactions They speak- we respond, they smile- we respond, they cry- we respond Interactions with peers o Smile, laugh, vocalize more while looking at peers than at a mirror image of self o 9-12 months accept toys from others, 14 months reproduce others behaviors