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Lifespan Development Chapter 9

by: Morgan Ball

Lifespan Development Chapter 9 HDFS 2010-001

Marketplace > Auburn University > Human Development > HDFS 2010-001 > Lifespan Development Chapter 9
Morgan Ball

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About this Document

These notes include all notes discussed on chapter 9 such as: -Intellectual development -Piaget -what is intelligence - And more
Lifespan Human Development in Family Context
Carol L. Roberson
Class Notes
hdfs 2010, Human, development, lifespan development, Human Lifespan Development
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Morgan Ball on Monday October 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HDFS 2010-001 at Auburn University taught by Carol L. Roberson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Lifespan Human Development in Family Context in Human Development at Auburn University.


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Date Created: 10/17/16
Chapter 9 Intellectual development Piaget: concrete operational thought • Organized, logical thinking • Coin example • Decentration- can take into account multiple aspects of a situation (distance + speed as determining time to reach a destination, height and width of a cup) • Conservation • Deductive reasoning (clay ball-> string->ball) also 5 + 3 = 8, 8 – 5 = 3 • Difficulties with deductive reasoning- follow experiences and not logic o Deductive reasoning (contrast with formal operational) • But according to Piaget, still not abstract thinking- tied to the concrete • Informative processing approach o Metameory: strategies for improving cognitive processing (rehearsal, organizing coherent patterns) o Metacognition: thinking about thinking- in particular strategies to improve problem solving • Vygotsky o Remember zone of proximal development and scaffolding o Both adults and other children can provide the scaffolding § Cooperative learning: children helping other children ú can be very useful Intelligence • what is it? o The capacity to understand the world, think with rationality, use resources effectively when faced with challenges • Catell dives it into o Fluid intelligence: information processing, reasoning, memory o Crystallized intelligence: accumulation of information, skills, strategies • Binet: intelligence is that which intelligence test measure o Started out to identify kids who needed extra help outside the classroom o His test was essentially linked to school performance- and today, that is what they predict the best • Now use a deviation score- average is 100, standard deviation 15: 2/3 of scores fall between 85 and 115 • Most popular scales are the Stanford- binet and the Wechsler scales for children (WISC-3) and adults (WAIS) • Although tied to school performance, not as closely tied to perform beyond that o Don’t predict how successful you will be after school • Racial differences in the intelligence scores o Heredity or environment o What are implications? o What is the evidence? o When you account for indicators of economic and social factors, there is no differences among ethnic groups which suggest that there is an important environmental component § How does this fit into what we know about brain development • Reading o While language vs. phonics approach o Phonics wins in terms of reading • Intellectual disability o Limitations in 2 or more areas of adaptability plus substantial sub average intellectual function § Communication § Self-care, home-living, self direction, health, and safety Chapter 6 Socio-emotional development in infancy ▯ Developing the roots of sociability  Emotions o What are emotions?  Have biological arousal component, cognitive component, behavioral component  Pulled over by officer  Biological arousal: Heart rate, sweating, etc.  Cognitive: Do I have my licenses? My parents? This is going to be expensive?  Behavioral: Cry, screaming, etc. o How do we know infants experience emotions?  They cry o What functions do emotional expressions have  Behavioral organization (social responses, adaptive behavior  Social responses  “Sorry officer.” “I wasn’t speeding”  Communication o Stranger anxiety  Begins sometime in middle of first year  Baby is more accepting of females and children (reactions less stressed)  If the baby has more experience with others they are less likely to be overwhelmed when seeing others o Separation anxiety  Begins 7-8 months, peaks around 14 months o Both stranger anxiety and separation anxiety are universal, represent increased cognitive abilities and bonds with parents o Social referencing: intentionally looking to another for information about the situation  When getting pulled over and there is a passenger in the car the driver looks at passenger to refer to  Begins around 8-9 months  Mixed messages- different messages from mom and dad can cause distress  When a baby falls over a mom might over react where the child follows but dad might not care as much  Often will use social referencing when the situation is ambiguous/ unclear  Self awareness o Measured by the mirror and rouge experiment  Take a baby and whip something red on their nose and face them in front of a mirror, if they try to move it from their nose they know the baby is them  Gain capability after 17 months, also some awareness of their capabilities (what they are capable of and what they are not capable of)  Chimps can not do the mirror thing but elephants can  Theory of mind o Do they know what is going on in their minds? Can they understand what is in their mind? Guessing someone else’s thoughts o Explanations that children use to explain how others think  Shown in  People as “compliant agents”  Raising a Sippy cup and mom gets milk, baby manipulated mom’s action  Empathy (about 2 years of age)  See friend crying and they give them a hug  Deception  Dog treat story  Temperament Patterns of arousal and emotionality that are consistent, enduring characteristics of the individual  Do they cry easy? Can you take them anywhere? Do they smile more?  Regularly? Eat at the same time. Poop at the same time. Sleep patters. o Appears largely genetic and stable, but modifiable by child rearing practices o Elements include  Activity level  Irritability (how easily disturbed)  Rhythmicity (regularity)  Quality of mood  Approach-withdrawal (to new people, situations) o Thomas and Chess: 3 major types  Easy (40%)  Positive disposition, high rhythmicity, adaptability, moderate or low intensity  Sleep easy, happy, easy to adapt, regular patterns  Difficult (10%)  Negative moods are slow to adapt, withdrawal, high irritability, more predictable  Irregular, hard to comfort when upset, negative and unhappy  Slow to warm (15%)  Inactive, calm but negative mood and withdraw from new situation  They do adapt but slowly  Goodness to fit especially with difficult babies  How do parents react  Warmth and consistency vs. anger and inconsistency  How we interact with children effect them in the long run  Gender: sense of being male or female o Different depending on culture but biologically very similar except for the obvious body parts o Behavior differences are because kids are socialized into their gender roles of the culture  Very few actual differences (other than anatomical- between boys and girls)  Boys: more toward independence  When boys act out “boys will be boys”  Girls: dependence and compliance  Parents seem to be more protective ▯ Social relationships  Attachment: balancing safety and security and the need to explore, learn new skills o Use Ainsworth strange situation test to determine attachment status  Secure: explore independently  +/- Upset when mom leaves, comfort when returns  Wrapping themselves around mom when she returns  Mom exhibits “interactional synchrony” sensitive, responsive, warm  Child is more independent, curious, etc.  Ambivalent: low exploration  High distress when mom leaves, ambivalent react when returns  Mom provides inconsistent care and responsiveness  Child is dependent, anxious, as adults maybe more jealous  Mom is very wishy washy which makes child confused and not great with relationships  When mom returns they are not consistent due to mom not being consistent ▯ Avoidant  Doesn’t interact with mom, not distressed when she leaves, avoids her when she returns o “Given up” on getting emotional needs meet o Mom- low on synchronicity, sensitivity, and warmth, acts as if child is a burden o Child later less involved with others, distant o Mom allows child to cry it out and acts as if they are a burden  Disorganized (disoriented) o Inconsistent, contradictory behavior  Sometimes associated with abusive families  May experience dissociative experiences in adolescence  When mom walks back into room baby runs half way and than collapses on floor mid way  Story with girl and abusive dad and later in life with boyfriend she was crawling ▯ Erikson- psychosocial stages of development  Infancy: 2 stages o Trust vs. mistrust (1-18 months)  Depends on how well their needs are met by caregivers  Do not allow child to cry it out- they rely on caregivers o Autonomy vs. shame and doubt (18-36)  Develop independence, autonomy if parents encourage exploration, freedom  “I can do it myself”  give child opportunities to choice what they want, clothes or shoe tying  Develop shame, self-doubt, unhappiness if parents overly restrictive/ protective  Helping the child (they can almost do something but not too well)- scaffolding ▯ Reciprocal socialization: infants’ behaviors invite response from parents, which then elicit infants’ reactions  They speak- we respond, they smile- we respond, they cry- we respond  Interactions with peers o Smile, laugh, vocalize more while looking at peers than at a mirror image of self o 9-12 months accept toys from others, 14 months reproduce others behaviors


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